The pressure of the upper and lower: what is this?
The human body must maintain homeostasis – the constancy of the internal environment. The basis for this constancy is the metabolism. Metabolism is a continuous processes of assimilation (anabolism) and excretion (catabolism). These processes at the cellular level regulates the special liquid tissue called blood. In order that the blood could get into all cells of the body, you must create a Pressor effect. What are the most important parameters exist in the blood pressure of a person?
Blood pressure is divided into arterial and venous. The two halves of the channel are separated by a huge volume of capillaries in which gas exchange occurs. The venous dark blood flowing in a large vein, enters the right chambers of the heart. So she got there in the right atrium has the lowest Pressor ratio. Sometimes it can be negative to the blood «stuck» to the heart and then went to the oxygen enrichment.
Arterial pressure is the method invented by nature to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the capillaries. In order for blood in small vessels, it is necessary to perform work. This work is a pump – the cardiac muscle, called myocardium.
The upper (systolic) pressure
That reduction of the left ventricular myocardium (systole), it ejects blood with a voltage sufficient to its contact with the capillaries and their passage, gas exchange and contact capacitance vessels – venules. This is the maximum voltage created by the power of the myocardium – is the systolic or «upper pressure». In norm it is equal to 120 – 139 mm Hg. This is a significant amount of mercury is 13.6 times denser than water, and the height of mercury equivalent height of water column of 1.6 – 1.8 m. This means that the force of the systole is able to throw a jet of blood up to the ceiling.
Pressure fell below normal?
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The lower (diastolic) pressure
After contraction of the left ventricle and ejection of blood into the aorta the time of his rest – diastole. At this time the ventricles (both right and left) fills with blood in preparation for the next contraction. During this period, vessels of large arteries not sent a strong muscular contraction, and there is a lower (diastolic) blood pressure. What is this value?
In a closed system, consisting of elastic arteries which have elastic resistance, even in diastole cannot be null Pressor effect. If that happened, then the whole system would have collapsed, and blood flow became impossible. While the ejection of the blood produced by the left ventricle moves as an elastic volume in the smaller vessels, the vessel wall, which is the fraction of a second ago swept the «wave elasticity», return to original state.
This figure is a constant diastolic pressure, which is not due to temporary muscular output, and the elasticity of the vascular wall and the prisoners inside the liquid volume. His numbers should not exceed 90 mm. RT. article If those numbers range from 90 to 99 mm, this 1 degree of hypertension.
About the regulation of the tone of the myocardium and blood vessels
Since man is a complex biological mechanism with different levels of the nervous and endocrine (humoral) regulation, will consider the most typical examples:
- Reduction of the lumen of blood vessels by contraction of smooth muscle elements in their walls, possible with the release of hormones into the blood. The result is vascular spasm. This is what nature is allergic «urticaria». White blisters on the skin caused by peripheral vasospasm under the action of histamine. Vascular spasm occurs in many diseases, he is to blame for the development of chronic oxygen starvation of many tissues. Very dangerous spasm of the coronary arteries, which can result in the development of myocardial infarction or sudden death.
- Under stress adrenaline in the blood causes the heart to contract faster, there is tachycardia, increased blood pressure (due to systolic blood pressure).
The question is often asked: what increase in pressure is more dangerous, top or bottom?
The most constantly dangerous blood pressure fluctuations. If «rolls over» the top and bottom is normal, this situation is not so dangerous, because of the time the vasculature was carried out at normal pressure.
If the increased bottom pressure, it is indicative of the deterioration of the elastic properties of the vascular bed, the occurrence of rigidity, the rigidity of the vessel walls.
They lose the ability to respond to changes in pressure, and in tissues that are sensitive to the Pressor effects of irreversible processes. Such tissues are blood vessels in the retina, blood vessels of the kidneys and the myocardium. This process is called microangiopathy. Therefore, the most correct to support the «within» both the upper and lower pressure, to observe the motor mode, to keep the body weight in perfect condition and periodically monitor blood pressure numbers.
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