The symptoms and treatment of aneurysms of cerebral vessels
Aneurysm of cerebral vessels — a dangerous condition, often leading to sudden death. Almost without giving symptoms, intracranial aneurysm is often detected only after its rupture. To prevent this dangerous condition is possible, if a person has a notion of what it is, and what are the signs of the initial stage of development of the disease.
Cerebral aneurysm: the disease and its causes
Aneurysm of cerebral vessels is an extension of the vascular wall in a certain area of the cerebral vessel. Vascular bulging puts pressure on the nervous tissue and provokes neurological complications, corresponding to the location in a particular part of the brain. Most often, an aneurysm is formed at the base of the skull just under the brain. Disease are more susceptible to adult women. Than large reached vascular protrusion, the higher the risk of rupture. The causes of intracranial aneurysms:
- a congenital defect of the vascular wall.
- genetic disease — polycystic kidney disease, connective tissue pathology;
- an abnormal tangle of brain blood vessels;
- traumatic brain injury;
- cerebral infection, syphilis and fungal infection;
- high intracranial pressure;
- cancer of the brain.
Focal provokes vasodilatation of the brain:
- Smoking, alcohol, drugs;
- hormonal contraception.
Types of intracranial aneurysms
There are the following forms of vascular aneurysm in the brain:
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- structure — saccular and fusiform;
- the diameter of the microaneurysms (2 mm), small (to 6 mm), medium (1.5 cm), large (to 2.5 cm) and giant (up to 6 cm);
- depth of visit — superficial and deep.
The symptoms of aneurysm of cerebral vessels
About the dangerous disease, the person may not even suspect. Aneurysms, particularly of small size, often do not give any major symptoms except occasional headache and pain in the eyeball. These symptoms continuing for several days/weeks may indicate imminent rupture of the vascular protrusions. Therefore, their occurrence should not be ignored as timely access to a doctor can save a life. The expressed symptoms, which occurs suddenly gives you an aneurysm:
- a severe headache is one of the most severe manifestations of pain that a person can experience;
- double vision and darkening of the eyes, dilated pupils, photophobia (when hemorrhage in subarachnoid space);
- nausea, vomiting without relief;
- expressed rigidity of occipital muscles;
- on one side of the face (opposite gap) numbness, muscle paralysis, speech disorders, blindness, paresis/paralysis of the limbs — signs of bleeding in the brain tissue;
- often loss of consciousness, rarely coma.
The characteristics of aneurysms of different localization:
- Damage to the carotid artery — pain in the forehead and periorbital area, impaired vision, hemiparesis, numbness in the region I – II branches of the trigeminal nerve.
- Aneurysm of the main artery — paralysis of single-/double-sided oculomotor nerve, ophthalmoplegia, vertical, or circular eye movements, blindness, with massive hemorrhage, coma, impaired breathing, absence of light reaction of the pupils.
- The gap extensions perenakachivat artery — memory loss, inability to concentrate, mental disorders, mental decline, hemiparesis legs.
- Hemorrhage from an aneurysm of the middle artery — paralysis of the hands, impaired speech and vision, seizures and convulsions.
- Rupture of the vertebral artery — numbness of tongue, lack of sensitivity to pain and temperature, dysphagia.
In 25% of cases the hemorrhage is due to rupture of aneurysm flows by type of migraine, hypertensive crisis, psychosis, nerve damage cervical, meningitis or food poisoning.
Confirmation of diagnosis is made when the following surveys:
- examination of the neurologist — unexplained head pain (without neurological symptoms), with a historical gap – paralysis, vision problems and other neurological symptoms;
- cerebral angiography, CT/MRI detection of aneurysms and determination of their size and localization;
- the spinal tap — if you suspect a subarachnoid hemorrhage;
- transcranial Doppler — detects signs of vasospasm (the effects of subarachnoid hemorrhage);
- electroencephalography — reveals abnormalities of electrical brain activity.
Removing the aneurysm and preventing rupture is only radical surgical methods. Operations:
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- Crestatura ablation of the enlarged receptacle with the use of special substances (drug ablation) or radio waves (radiofrequency ablation).
- Clipping — laying on the extended portion of the metal brackets for the normalization of the vessel lumen.
- Stenting — crestatura shipping special mesh structure, filling the diverticulum.
- Open surgery — conducted when the location of a ruptured aneurysm in an inaccessible place, fraught with serious neurological complications.
Effects after surgery
The prognosis of aneurysm of cerebral vessels depends on its size, age and condition of the patient. Each intracranial aneurysm, is an exceptional case requiring an individual approach in treatment. Even with the surgery by an experienced neurosurgeon, the risk of complications is not completely eliminated. There is always a probability of:
- aneurysm rupture during surgery and hemorrhagic stroke;
- postoperative vasospasm;
- damage to brain centers — loss of vision, hearing or speech, paralysis, etc.;
- re-formation of the aneurysm;
It is easier to conduct all activities to prevent the development of aneurysms and early detection, than to treat its consequences. Preventive complex includes:
- Stop Smoking and alcoholic drinks.
- Rational nutrition is the exclusion of fatty/fried, the predominance in the diet of healthy foods – fruits and vegetables.
- Proper treatment of hypertension.
- A preventative blood test for cholesterol and regular courses of medication to normalize his level.
- Timely visit to the doctor with regular, recurring headaches.