The symptoms of leukemia, photo

Leukemia is a group of malignant blood diseases. There are several forms of leukemia, occurring either acutely or as a chronic process. The disease can occur in childhood, adulthood or old age. It is important not to miss the first signs of illness and seek medical help.

The General concept of leukemia

Leukemia, or leukemia, or blood cancer is synonymic names for the same disease, which is based on the damaging factor in the process of maturation and division of blood cells. In the hematopoietic system is failing, which is expressed in an uncontrolled division and release of immature cells (mainly leukocytes) in the bloodstream. As a result, a large number of young cells interferes with the correct operation of healthy blood cells.

Normal all blood cells undergo a cycle: puberty, the blood outlet, perform their function, death. When leukemic lesions this process is disturbed and creates painful consequences for the organism. Immature cells divide, circulating in the blood and settling in the internal organs and lymph nodes.

The causes of the disease

The true causes of malignant blood diseases, currently not been clarified with absolute certainty. However, there are several factors contributing to the development of leukemia:

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  • ionizing radiation, especially in large doses;
  • chronic exposure to certain toxic chemical compounds (gasoline, insecticides) and medicines (antibiotics, penicillin and cephalosporins);
  • chemotherapy;
  • the abuse of tobacco;
  • the impact of oncogenic viruses;
  • a genetic factor (in people with chromosomal abnormalities, the disease occurs more often).

Forms of leukemia

The disease process may be acute or chronic. When acute course characterized by large numbers of immature (cancerous) cells in the bloodstream. The disease quickly manifests itself and progresses rapidly. In chronic process, immature cells capable of performing the functions of healthy blood cells. The painful symptoms can be absent and people for a long time consider themselves healthy.

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The disease may be detected accidentally while undergoing routine inspection. Despite the initial asymptomatic, chronic form of leukemia with the accumulation of cancer cells once they begin to dramatically improve.
Form of the disease is associated with what types of white blood cells, platelets and red blood cells are damaged and involved in the process of malignant formation of cancer cells. The acute form is characterized by:

  • lymphoblastic leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) – damage to the life cycle of lymphocytes;
  • myeloid leukemia (acute myelogenous leukemia) – the emergence of a large number of young red blood cells, platelets, and leukocytes;
  • myeloid leukemia (acute non-lymphocytic leukemia) is a lesion of the myeloid Rostock blood and damage the life cycle of all types of leukocytes.

Симптомы лейкемии, фото

Chronic form is characterized by:

  • malacitana leukemia (chronic myeloid leukemia) – defeat the maturation and division within the bone marrow of red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells;
  • lymphocytic leukemia (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) is a violation of the life cycle of lymphocytes inside the bone marrow.

The grounds on which to suspect leukemia

The initial manifestations of the disease are often similar to respiratory infections and catarrhal phenomena. For early stage acute and chronic leukemia is characterized by:

  • high body temperature, accompanied by chills (fever);
  • enlarged lymph nodes;
  • aching, pain in the joints;
  • General weakness and fatigue;
  • abdominal pain of unclear etiology;
  • loss of appetite until its complete loss;
  • the increase in size of the liver and spleen accompanied by pain in the right and left podrebarac;
  • the emergence of minor and major skin rashes;
  • the appearance of excessive sweating.

Symptoms of leukemia in children

Manifestations of the disease in children may vary somewhat depending on the form of leukemia, the individual characteristics and age of the child. However, with the appearance of frequent vomiting, weakness and loss of appetite, decrease of body weight under normal diet, headaches, seizures, you might suspect the development of leukemia. There is a tendency to frequent colds, sore throat, stomatitis. Antibiotic therapy in these cases is ineffective.

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A child has a tendency to bleed easily arise and are not long-term bruises. Even minor cuts and wounds bleed for a long time and heal. Body temperature is kept at the high figures, often have nosebleeds. Headaches, and the propagation of malignancy – pain in bones and joints.

Symptoms of leukemia in adults

Симптомы лейкемии, фото
Like children, adults with leukemia appears flu-like condition with the rise of body temperature to high numbers, the high fatigue after the familiar and feasible. Typical bleeding, and nosebleeds. There are changes in the gingival mucosa, in men, possible pain in the scrotum, and in women, discomfort in the region of the cervix. Also characterized by the enlargement of lymph nodes, liver and spleen and tenderness when palpation; nausea and vomiting, changes in the structure of the skin. With Central nervous system disorders can occur:

  • frequent severe headaches;
  • recurrent convulsions;
  • confusion;
  • dizziness;
  • the weakening of control over the movement of the limbs up to the paresis, and paralysis.

Depending on the location of the lesion tumor have pain in the internal organs (kidneys, liver, heart). You may receive a veil before the eyes, blurring of vision. The respiratory system appear dyspnea and paroxysmal cough. Acute leukemia is developing rapidly, so diagnosed immediately after the examination. In the chronic form of leukemia characterized by the following condition:

  • bleeding difficult to stop bleeding;
  • frequent colds, respiratory infections, herpetic lesions, pneumonia, bronchitis;
  • the weight loss for no apparent reason;
  • the appearance of excessive sweating, especially during night sleep;
  • the appearance of pale skin.

Treatment of leukemia

The first question arises from the parents of a sick child or a sick adult patient is treated or not the disease? Of course, there are comprehensive treatments for all forms of leukemia. It is important to notice the characteristic symptoms and to consult a specialist. After diagnosis, treatment begins immediately at the Hematology departments, or specialized medical centers. Methods for the treatment of acute and chronic leukemia

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  • Chemotherapy is one of the most important components of treatment. Used drugs, whose action is directed at the destruction of cancer cells and inhibition of their division and growth. Therapy may be mono-component (using one drug) or multicomponent (combination of two or more drugs). Ways of drug administration: oral (by mouth), intravenous (infusion and injection), according to testimony in the spinal canal. Used drugs: Mercaptopurine, Leukeran, Cyclophosphamide and other antineoplastic drugs.
  • The application of the biological method of therapy based on the stimulation of protective forces of an organism. In this case, Human leukocyte interferon, and Antibodies monoklonale.
  • Radiation, or radiotherapy is carried out locally, for exposure to the cancerous area of the body. Applied radiation of high frequency.
  • Transfusion – transfusion of isotonic solutions, red blood cell and platelets for the purpose of dealing with anemia, shock and dehydration.
  • Transplantation (transplantation) bone marrow cells. The best match are considered immediate family, for children – brothers or sisters.
  • With supportive treatment. Includes a special diet, antimicrobial and anti-anemic drugs, dental care.
  • Special attention is paid to the treatment of leukemia in children – in addition to the care of the state held a variety of events, created a Fund to support the children. For adult patients with a frightening diagnosis exists and a Foundation to fight leukemia – the organization in support of patients 18 years and older.