The upper pressure and lower pressure, what does it mean?

To characterize the blood pressure always use two digits. And it is no coincidence, each of the figures bears a certain information. Sometimes the first digit may differ significantly from the second, or the first digit can be higher than normal, and the second in the normal range. Characteristics of blood pressure in humans can be assumed as working the heart and blood vessels. Talking about each of the digits of pressure, and from which they depend?

What is blood pressure person? What it is?

Is the force with which the blood exerts pressure on blood vessels. The heart is known to work in rhythm. Periods of contraction (systole) followed by periods of relaxation (diastole). In each of the periods of the heart muscle in the blood vessels creates different blood pressure. The pressure generated in systole, called systolic. The pressure exerted on blood vessels during diastole is diastolic.

The first digit in the value of blood pressure is the top (systolic), the second digit is the bottom (diastolic). In an adult the normal upper HELL is in the range of 100 – 140 mm Hg. article and lower – in the range of 60 – 95 mm Hg. art. They must be different and cannot be the same. The difference between the upper and lower pressure should be no more than 40, this pressure is called the pulse. This pressure difference necessary for opening the valve in the aorta during systole and push blood into the vessels. If there is no difference, so the blood can’t move through the vessels, and death of the organism.

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The magnitude of pressure in people must be sufficiently stable responsible for the nervous system and the baroreceptors in the blood vessels. When the pressure receptors transmit signals to the nerves responsible for relaxation of smooth muscles of the arteries, and vascular tone decreases, which leads to a decrease in pressure.

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What determines blood pressure numbers?

  • From the force with which the heart muscle is reduced. The stronger the reduction, the higher systolic pressure.
  • On the elasticity of the artery walls. Under the action of the current of the blood vessels stretch due to its elasticity to support blood pressure.
  • The resistance of the small vessels (arterioles, capillaries) to the flow of blood.
  • The viscosity of blood is – the less fluid in the body, the higher the viscosity. Consequently, increases vascular resistance and pressure.
  • From the amount of blood in the body or blood volume. The more expressed plethora, the higher the blood pressure numbers.

Which means each digit HELL?

Systolic blood pressure shows how the myocardium. If everything is in order, the heart muscle works with a sufficient force, and the figure will be in the normal range. High or low systolic tells about the disruption of the heart. Diastolic pressure shows what kind of shape are vessels. If the vessel walls are elastic, inside covered with atherosclerotic plaques is well reduced and promote the blood through the body, and a lower pressure remains within the normal range.
Верхнее давление и нижнее давление: что означают?

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What does a high systolic and diastolic pressure?

This means that there is hypertension or hypertension. The reason for this state can be an increase in circulating blood volume, increased vascular tone as a result of stress, diseases of the endocrine system, cholesterol deposits on the inner wall of blood vessels. And the reason why high blood pressure can be increased or strengthening the heart muscle.

What is the meaning of high systolic and low diastolic pressure?

This condition is called isolated systolic hypertension. The causes of this disease can be reduced elasticity of the vascular wall, deposition of collagen, calcium, disorders of blood flow in the renal arteries, disruption of the heart (tachycardia, myocardial hypertrophy), decreased sensitivity of receptors responsible for pressures.

What is the meaning of low systolic and diastolic pressure?

This complex testifies to decrease in efficiency of the heart muscle, decrease elasticity or tone of blood vessels or reducing blood volume in the vessels. Quite often this condition can be noticed in women during menstruation, when there is blood loss, fluid volume in vessels decreases. Pathological loss of pressure can occur in the following cases:

  • In violation of the kidneys and adrenal glands. If the kidneys produce renin is not enough (biologically active substance), the pressure is reduced.
  • During protein starvation or anorexia – conditions in which reduced vascular tone, decreases the amount of minerals in the body, blood volume, and all this leads to a decrease in pressure.
  • In infectious diseases – an excess of toxins can enter the body in a state of shock, and this entails a reduction in pressure.
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What is the meaning of low systolic and high diastolic blood pressure?

Sometimes it happens option when systolic pressure within the normal range or even reduced, and diastolic higher than normal. It occurs when disruption of normal renal function, thyroid or adrenal glands.

Kidney produced a very important matter affecting the regulation of BP in the body renin. That is why lower pressure is often called the «kidney». When the concentration of blood renin vascular tone increases, diastolic pressure increases. Thyroid hormones and adrenal glands can produce hormones that stimulates the spasm of the blood vessels (epinephrine, norepinephrine), it may also increase diastolic pressure.

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