The vessels of the brain: possible pathologies and their treatment

Brain blood vessels provide a constant transport of oxygen-rich and nutrient blood to the nervous tissue thus providing valuable work of the authority. Blood flow to the brain is provided by large vessels: a pair of sleepy and a pair of vertebral arteries. At the base of on their branches form the so-called wallisii circle. Due to this structure, vessels even if the violation of the functions of one carotid (vertebral) artery triggers a compensatory mechanism by which the quality of the blood supply is not disturbed. However, if you do not start the treatment of brain vessels, perfect the mechanisms of compensation given to man by nature, will cease to operate, and this will lead to a significant blood disorder.

 

Atherosclerosis of the brain vessels and neck

Atherosclerosis is a common disease, the essence of which is the dysfunction of the large vessels (veins and arteries) due to destruction of their walls formations of fat and connective tissue. If the wall of the artery (veins) appears seal, its lumen gradually narrowed, thereby affecting the blood supply to the organ that receives blood through the damaged vessel. Consequences of atherosclerosis are:

  • deterioration in the nutrition of neurons;
  • the blood circulation;
  • hypoxia of the brain.

Now the causes of atherosclerosis are the subject of discussion. Some scientists believe that atherosclerotic vascular disease is a natural consequence of aging, others consider atherosclerosis as a separate disease. Among the factors which provoke it, there are:

  • physical inactivity;
  • hypertension;
  • the metabolism of lipids;
  • heredity;
  • diseases of the endocrine system;
  • Smoking, alcohol consumption;
  • vasculitis;
  • the abuse of food with high cholesterol.

At the initial stages of atherosclerosis manifested mild symptoms, for example headache and rapid fatigue. Progression of vascular pathology people said the violation of short-term memory and tinnitus, slight gait disturbance, sleep problems.

The danger of this disease of the blood vessels of the brain lies in the fact that the lumen of the affected artery can become blocked, causing blood flow stops to the organ. Such a condition is dangerous, necrosis of the brain tissue, in other words, ischemia. The consequence of the latter becomes not only brain dysfunction, but also disability and even death.

Many wonder about how the doctor treats atherosclerosis and about which studies are assigned when suspected of having the disease. The examination and treatment of person suffering from manifestations of atherosclerosis, is a neurologist and a vascular surgeon. You may also need to consult an endocrinologist and a cardiologist. For the diagnosis of disease applying such methods:

  • magnetic resonance imaging of the brain;
  • ultrasound of the heart and internal organs, including Doppler;
  • angiography of the brain vessels and neck;
  • biochemical analysis of blood.
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Treatment of atherosclerosis is a complex and continuous. First of all, people should follow a diet that helps to normalize weight and reduce cholesterol levels. The disease is treated with these drugs:

  • lowers cholesterol: Diosphenol, Linetolom, Thiamine, Pyridoxine;
  • the angioprotectors: Stugeron, Prodektina, Anginine;
  • anticoagulants: Heparin, Singularem, Plantana;
  • vitamin-mineral complexes and antioxidants.

If there is a danger of complete blocking of the vessel plaque and development of thrombosis, the patient shows an operation on the affected vessel. In atherosclerosis of the brain vessels is carried out:

  • the extension of the affected vessel a balloon catheter;
  • implantation of the stent in the place of narrowing of the vessel.

People with atherosclerosis should be monitored regularly by a doctor.

Сосуды головного мозга: возможные патологии и их лечение

Cerebral vasculitis

This is a dangerous disease develops as a result of inflammation of blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. Cerebral vasculitis is:

  • Primary: occurs on the background of systemic lesions of the circulatory system. Non-communicable disease.
  • Secondary: manifests as a complication of an infectious or allergic diseases. The disease is contagious.
  • A clear list of the causes of pathology there. Most often the precipitating factor in the development of disease is a brain tumor, lupus erythematosus, rheumatic vessels and the heart, nonspecific aortoarteritis, as well as infectious diseases.

    Symptoms of disease developed rapidly. Symptoms of vasculitis resemble the manifestation of the stroke: the person feels severe headache, impaired vision, hearing and sensitivity. Primary vasculitis may be accompanied by cognitive impairment and epilepsy. In secondary vasculitis in humans, there are convulsions and transient ischemic attack.

    The examination of the patient doctors of different profiles: a therapist, a rheumatologist, nephrologist, otolaryngologist, neurologist and surgeon. If you suspect a vasculitis of blood vessels of the brain and neck, a person needs a detailed hemogram and angiography (CT or MRI). Inflammation of the blood vessels of the brain are treated in hospital. The patient is shown receiving antibiotics, glucocorticoids (Prednisone) and immunosuppressants. In case of allergic vasculitis prescribed antihistamines.

    Encephalopathy

    This disease, with cerebrovascular insufficiency caused by dysfunction of the blood vessels of the brain. Such abuses include narrowing of the lumen, an infectious lesion or stenosis. People diagnosed with dyscirculatory encephalopathy, have degenerative disorders of the brain and its structure. The reason for this disease are the other vascular diseases of the brain, for example, atherosclerosis and vasculitis. Also encephalopathy is triggered by hypertension, venous stasis in the vessels of the brain and neck, congenital disorders of connective tissue and vascular dystonia.

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    The consequences of this disease are:

    • atrophy of the substance of the brain;
    • hypoxia;
    • microinfarcts.

    The symptoms of the disease depend on the stage of its development:

  • First stage: reduced working capacity, appears fatigue, uncontrolled irritability and depression. The person feels headache, dizziness and tinnitus.
  • Second stage: the symptoms that characterize the first stage, progressing in its development. In addition, there are pathological reflexes and expands blood vessels fundus.
  • Third stage: a person develops dementia (reduced intelligence). Frequent attacks of epilepsy.
  • When you see warning signs people should immediately consult a doctor-neurologist. Among the diagnostic procedures in discirculatory encephalopathy are:

    • computed tomography of the brain;
    • reoentsefalografii;
    • ultrasonic dopplerography;
    • General and biochemical blood tests.

    The disease cure vascular surgeon and a neurologist. Treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy includes the following directions:

  • Control of blood pressure. To this end, the person prescribed ACE inhibitors (Captopril, Quadropril), beta-blockers (Betacard, Bisoprolol), diuretics (Furosemide, Veroshpiron).
  • The intake of statins (Atorvastatin, Simvastatin) that adjust the lipid spectrum.
  • Welcome antihypoxants, for example, glutamic acid.
  • Reception of nicotinic acid drugs that improve blood circulation.
  • If the stenosis has spread to more than 70% of the vessels, the patient needs surgery.

    Aneurysm of the brain

    The vessel wall consists of 3 layers, but if the cerebral vessels have weak walls, there is a protrusion of a certain portion of them. Resulting sagging section of wall quickly filled with blood. The latter puts pressure on the layers between which it is located, and such phenomena are at any time can lead to rupture of the vessel. The loss of the integrity of the artery (veins) of the brain is threatened by a hemorrhagic stroke. The danger of an aneurysm lies in the fact that till the moment of rupture, the person may not feel any symptoms.

    To diagnose the presence of stratifying artery using vascular ultrasound of the brain and neck, as well as angiography.

    The causes of the disease include:

    • Smoking and cocaine abuse;
    • atherosclerosis;
    • vasculitis;
    • Oncology;
    • hypertension;
    • a traumatic brain injury.

    The signs of an aneurysm on an artery or vein of the brain include:

    • blindness;
    • dizziness;
    • minor problems with coordination, hearing and speech;
    • the weakening of the sensitivity of the person;
    • local paroxysmal pain in the head.
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    The main danger of an aneurysm is its rupture, because of him people have bleeding in the cranial cavity, which leads to the formation of a hematoma. Bleeding can cause necrosis of the nervous tissue. Symptoms of aneurysm rupture include partial paralysis, drop in blood pressure, nausea, loss of consciousness. If the person had similar symptoms, it must immediately be hospitalized in the intensive care unit. In most cases the surgery is performed, aimed at binding the ruptured wall of the vessel. This clipping of surgical strengthening wall, the implantation of the microspiral.

    The sick person also shows the technique:

    • calcium channel blockers: Verapamil, Nifedipine;
    • anticonvulsants: Gabitril, Topamax;
    • drugs to normalize blood pressure: Indapamide, Tsiklometiazid etc.

    If the patient suffers from acute pain and vomiting, he prescribed painkillers and anti-emetics.

    All the people who have problems with the blood vessels of the brain, should be regularly seen by a doctor and follow all his recommendations.

    Prevention

    Any disease easier to prevent than to deal with it. The same goes for disorders of the blood vessels of the brain. To protect yourself from cardiovascular diseases, you need to:

  • To limit the influence of stress.
  • Eat right: a preference for fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals, white chicken meat, sea fish, nuts and vegetable oils. The use of semi-finished products, fast food and high-calorie foods should be limited.
  • To comply with the drinking regime on the day should drink at least 1.5 liters of water.
  • Moderate exercise and walking in the fresh air.
  • Limit alcohol consumption, stop Smoking.
  • In the presence of a genetic factor of cardiovascular disease need to regularly visit the doctor and undergo diagnosis.
  • Self-treatment of vascular diseases of the brain are not allowed!