Thiazide diuretics

Tiazidopodobnye and thiazide diuretics are most commonly used in the treatment of edema and hypertension. The effect of pressure reduction observed after 3 to 4 weeks after the start of medication. Drugs are considered ineffective in the treatment of hypertension, if the patient has any diseases in the urogenital area, as the presence of some abnormalities significantly reduces the effectiveness of diuretics.

Characteristics of groups compared to other diuretics

Tiazidove diuretics (saluretics) are diuretic synthetic origin. Feature of these drugs in long-term anti-hypertensive action. Because of this, the tools most often used for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Unlike other diuretics, this group of drugs does not require strictly limit salt intake is kalisberegauschee. Due to these properties tiazidove the most preferred diuretic for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure in patients who have comorbidities among osteoporosis.

Saluretics reduce the process of releasing the organism from the end products of the decay of calcium ions with urine. Moreover, some studies confirm that patients with hypertension who have undergone treatment tiazidnymi diuretics, less likely to suffer from bone fracture compared to patients treated with other medicines that reduce blood pressure.

Receiving small doses of this group of drugs does not affect metabolic processes, the breakdown of carbohydrates and fats. The decrease in the allocation of the decay products of calcium observed in the use of diuretics tiazidove is a positive effect, required to treat women with the menopause.

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Mechanism of action

The use of thiazide diuretics reduce the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the distal long nephron tubules in the kidneys. It tells about the effects of drugs specifically on the mechanisms of «breeding» and the filtration of the urine. Saluretics have fast absorption, the maximum concentration of the drug is observed within 4 hours after taking the medicine. The effect of maximum amount of drug in the blood lasts up to 12 hours. The activity of saluretikov continues to decrease glomerular filtration rate to half of normal values.

The main difference between drugs of this group consists in the duration of their action. Some drugs just drink once a day, while the other must be repeated every 6 hours. The antihypertensive effect of diuretics in this group is observed by reducing the volume of circulated blood. It also reduces the amount of sodium and water in the walls of arteries and veins. This makes them thinner and increases the lumen of blood vessels. If you take the drug for a long period of time, impair the excretion of uric acid.

You should pay attention to the influence of diuretics on diuresis in patients with diabetes insipidus. With the thiazides, in patients observed the opposite effect — diuresis (urine excretion) is reduced. Why does such an action is uncertain. Some researchers attributed the effect of decreasing feelings of thirst and increased ability of the kidneys to filter urine.
Тиазидные диуретики

Indications for use

Most often thiazide diuretics are prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, and as a necessary preparation, without combination therapy. There is a high efficiency funds for the treatment of edema resulting from liver cirrhosis, heart failure or nephrotic syndrome. In some cases, thiazides are prescribed for kidney disease.

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Contraindications

The main contraindications for the use of thiazide diuretics include:

  • Gout — pathology of the tissues and joints in General, occurs due to problems with metabolic processes.
  • Hyperuricemia — excess uric acid in the blood (more than 360 µmol/l for women and 400 µmol/l in men).
  • Hypokalemia and hyponatremia — a deficiency of potassium or sodium in the body.
  • Hypercalcemia — elevated levels of calcium in the body.
  • Renal or hepatic insufficiency at later stages.
  • Addison’s disease is bilateral involvement of the adrenal cortex, reduces the production of hormones corticosteroids.

Side effects

Long term treatment with thiazide-leads to hypokalemia, so the moment the medication is necessary to introduce additional potassium-containing vitamins or products. In addition, a large number tiazidove diuretics may lead to increased pH in the body towards alkaline indicators and occurs gipohloremichesky alkalosis. Elderly patients the drug is prescribed with caution, as they can cause a latent form of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia.

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If you take diuretics for a long period of time, then their effect weakens. The most common causes of this effect is the reduction of sodium and albumin. To prevent this, reduce the amount of fluid administered drugs sodium and administration of concentrated albumin solution. Renal stage of acute renal failure is manifested as a look of absolute immunity of a person to dioretikam. Treatment is appointed individually.

Remember that self medication harms your health. Use medicines only on prescription and under his control!