Thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs: symptoms, pictures and treatment
Thrombophlebitis — an inflammatory disease of the veins, which are simultaneously formed intravascular thrombi. Often affects the venous network of the lower limbs. Enough dangerous disease in terms of the unpredictability of the currents and severe complications. The prognosis depends on timely diagnosis of the disease and appropriate treatment.
Thrombophlebitis: what is it?
The disease «arthritis» is made up of two factors: inflammation of the venous wall (phlebitis) and blood clots. Thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities develops in the following versions:
- lesion of the saphenous veins;
- pathology of deep venous vessels, which is denoted by the term «resins».
The danger of the disease is a high risk of detachment of a blood clot and blockage of blood vessels located above (lung, heart, brain). To calculate the trajectory of a blood clot and stopping it is impossible. This complication often leads to sudden death.
The main factors of thrombosis are:
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- varicose veins is a weakness of the venous wall and blood stasis in the lower part of the body;
- genetics — the presence of vascular diseases in relatives;
- the bleeding disorder is frequently observed in endocrine pathology, liver diseases, Oncology;
- injuries — improperly placed injection, infection, autoimmune reaction.
The risk group includes people leading a sedentary lifestyle (drivers, office workers operated patients with prolonged bed rest regime), pregnant women (postpartum phlebothrombosis) and the elderly. Also more prone to thrombosis for all patients with obesity.
The clinical picture
Acute thrombosis occurs infrequently. Symptoms develop rapidly: there is a sharp unbearable pain in the affected limb and apply in the direction of blood flow, the skin over the vein becomes purple-blue, and a little below the site of thrombosis is pale. Dilated subcutaneous veins become visible 2 days later. To relieve the pain the patient tries to lift the leg a little higher. During whole body hyperthermia of up to 38º With the leg feels cold.
Such symptoms requires immediate referral to a health facility. How to treat rapidly developing thrombosis – knows only doctor. Is strictly prohibited to massage a sore limb, compresses and RUB the ointment in order to avoid the detachment of a blood clot. The onset of the deep veins most often ignored due to the weak intensity of the symptoms. If the patient missed the beginning of the disease, then there are tangible signs:
- a small swelling of the legs, heaviness;
- the pain and unpleasant sensations (tingling, burning) in the calf muscles;
- seal the vein at the site of thrombosis;
- reddening of the skin spreading over the course of the affected vein.
Local symptoms may change localization (migratory thrombophlebitis). However, at this stage most people don’t give it much attention, unaware of the serious threat to life. Thrombophlebitis often can be diagnosed at the stage of thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery. Postthrombotic disease (her everyday name «elephantiasis») is a result of chronic venous insufficiency. This pathology is characterized by an increase in leg size, pain, seizures and venous ulcers.
The main purpose of diagnostics is to quickly determine the level of occlusion. At the reception phlebologist conducts special tests:
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- Symptom of Humans — the patient lying on her back with bent legs, the rotation of the foot causes pain.
- Test Lowenberg — if right to impose the cuff of sphygmomanometer and a blower pumping in air (simulated pressure measurement), then the indicators of the arrow from 80 to 100 mm Hg. article the patient with thrombophlebitis will celebrate the appearance of pain. In a healthy person the pressure builds up to 170 does not provoke discomfort.
- Test Optica-Ramines — the imposition and discharge of the cuff below the knee, the pain extends from the popliteal fossa to gastrocnemius muscle.
- Trial of Moses soreness occurs when compression of the tibia in the anteroposterior direction (in the resins) and sides.
- Symptom of Lovela — pain in the leg occur when sneezing or coughing.
Simultaneously performed, and laboratory examination of blood. A diagnostic system includes:
- ULTRASONIC Doppler study of the vascular network of the lower limbs;
- koagulogrammou blood;
- contrast venography (inferior to informative to ultrasound);
- CT, MRI with contrast injection (used when insufficient information Doppler of the veins of the lower leg).
To the treatment of thrombophlebitis should be treated very seriously. Often from thrombosis and thrombophlebitis treated in hospital.
Apply the ointment with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effect of Heparin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory substances (Indovina, Diclofenac, Nurofen). Ointment applied very gently over the damaged vein. Course — up to 2 weeks. Local media is only effective when thrombophlebitis of superficial veins.
How to treat thrombophlebitis – decides phlebologist. Only a qualified technician can individually develop a plan of treatment, determine optimal dosage and duration of their application. Are assigned:
- anticoagulants — injectable agents based on heparin;
- drugs NSAIDs — tablets Indomethacin, Diclofenac, Ortophenum;
- venotonic — Vitamins Detralex;
- antibiotics — only when seeding bacteria in the blood (more than thicken the blood).
To mitigate the inflammatory process used UHF, iontophoresis, magnetic therapy and hirudotherapy.
Diet menu includes seafood, cereals, vegetables, vegetable oils and dairy products. Help strengthen vascular tone spices (red pepper, cinnamon), as well as watermelons, onions, cranberries, grapes, dried fruits and garlic. You should limit the use of homemade marinades, meat dishes, legumes, sweets, animal fats, bananas, alcohol and coffee. Completely exclude from a diet of liver, spinach and Kale.
Traditional methods of treatment
For combating thrombophlebitis in the home, we can recommend the honey-garlic mixture, decoction of oak bark and the knobs of hops. However, it should be remembered that the treatment of folk remedies should be approved by the attending physician and will not save you from rapidly evolving diseases.
The operation is carried out when inflammation spread upwards (ascending thrombophlebitis), diagnosed by isolation of the thrombus, the acute course of the disease. Surgical intervention is inappropriate during pregnancy, at a late stage of varicose and old age.
The endovascular catheterization of the vessel with conducting thrombectomy – slabovrajennoe interference with optical control manipulation. Through miniroses is injected into a vein, a flexible catheter, the clot splits or medication (injected drugs) or mechanically (with the aid of microscopic instruments). Is performed under local anesthesia and does not require long recovery.
The installation of the filtration system is placed in a vein special construction resembling an umbrella or a circular mesh. Access is via a catheter or through a miniature incision of the venous wall. The filter system does not allows the clot to rise above and thereby prevents the development of pulmonary thromboembolism. This patient for a long time continued to take anticoagulants.
Venous clipping — the imposition of special clips for the narrowing of the lumen of the affected vessel prevents the promotion of a blood clot. Such intervention on the feet is reasonable when identification of multiple blood clots in their re-emergence or the ineffectiveness of rescattering thrombectomy. However, mechanical contraction of the vessel is fraught with even greater stagnation of blood in the leg.
Prevention of thrombophlebitis
- The fight against obesity, complex treatment of varicose veins.
- Wearing compression stockings.
- Water treatments for feet — warm baths, contrast douche (to avoid hypothermia!).
- Exercise — flexion/extension of the foot, rise on tiptoes, the exercise «Bicycle» and «scissors».
Is there a cure for arthritis? Eliminate the source of inflammation and remove a blood clot is possible. However, only long-term drug therapy will reduce the risk of re-tromboobrazovania.