Thrombophlebitis: what is it?
Thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is an inflammation accompanied by the formation of clots in blood vessels. In addition, patients experience enough pain, they bother edema, cyanosis (cyanosis) of the legs and increasing the local temperature. This disorder can be quite serious, and its complications are forced to think about the consequences of the disease. Therefore, it is important to begin diagnosis and treatment.
Thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs: what is it?
Thrombosis is caused by coagulation in the lumen of the vein, which disrupted her cross. Caused by General disease or local infection. In contrast to this disease, phlebothrombosis is a consequence of changes in blood clotting, damage of vascular walls and hemodynamic instability.
Every 5 – 10 people diagnosed with thrombosis of the lower extremities, and each of the third this complication occurs due to varicose veins. That’s why doctors insist on timely diagnosis and treatment of the latter diseases, and not «drop the question drift».
Causes of thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs
Possible factors influencing the development of the disease, not so much. These include:
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- genetic predisposition to thrombosis, including – thrombophilia;
- injury of the vessel wall (sometimes it is enough even a simple catheterization of a vein);
- damage the inner layer of veins infection, mechanical or due to allergic reactions;
- purulent diseases, abscesses and boils;
- varicose veins;
- pathology of venous valves, in which there is a shortfall in the performance of their functions;
- the compression of the vessels;
- violation of coagulation due to dehydration, hormonal problems or of increasing the number of platelets in the blood.
It is also important to mention the risk factors. The disease is diagnosed more often in women than in men. Largely this is due to the load on the lower extremity when wearing high heels, carrying a child, etc. the Average age of patients with thrombophlebitis is 40 – 50 years, at this age, usually deteriorates the condition of the vessels. Less frequently the disease is detected in younger patients.
The symptoms of thrombophlebitis
Because the disease is considered acute, symptoms develop very quickly, sometimes within a few hours. The main signs of thrombophlebitis:
- the feeling of fullness and overflow in the legs, heaviness and aching pain, aggravated by bending the legs at the ankle;
- swelling of the feet, especially the ankle and on the back side of the foot;
- blueness of the skin in the affected area (it is important that the symptom occurs not only during patient’s vessel, but also in the areas around it);
- the local temperature rise, which can be felt even to the touch;
- swelling and some consolidation of the veins closer to the skin;
- increase overall body temperature up to 38 degrees due to an inflammatory process.
Diagnosis of thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs
To suspect the patient thrombophlebitis and make a preliminary diagnosis by a qualified specialist can immediately after a survey and examination of the patient without any additional diagnostic methods. During the examination the doctor uses a functional tests that will help determine the condition of the lower extremities and their vessels.
Symptom of Humans — the so-called manifestation of the disease, in which the rotation of the foot causes the patient discomfort and even pain. To conduct this test you need to lie on the couch on your back and slightly bend your knees. When the sample Moses, the specialist presses down on the thigh with the front and rear sides (should be pain), as well as on the sides (discomfort occur).
Survey on Lowenberg and Opitz-Ramines sphygmomanometer is required (it usually measure blood pressure). In the first case, the cuff is applied in the middle of the tibia, and the second — a little above the knee, and pumped it up to 150 mm Hg. article, the patient has pain below the location of the cuff sphygmomanometer. The patient is asked to cough or to sneeze. Thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities, these processes also cause discomfort. This is called a symptom of Lovele.
The treatment of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities
In the treatment of this disease can be used as a physiotherapy and medical and surgical methods. In the first case, the patient is prescribed a special diet, which prevent «excessive» bleeding. In addition, give advice on the use of products that improve the condition of blood vessels. Used UHF therapy, electrophoresis with drugs, magneto — and hirudotherapy (treatment with leeches).
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For medical treatment apply the ointment on the basis of heparin (reduce inflammation, have analgesic effect, prevent blood clots), anticoagulants (for «clearing» of the lumen of blood vessels and avoid blood clotting) and anti-inflammatory drugs. Can also assign angioprotectors. They strengthen the walls of veins, increases their tone, reduce the permeability of small blood vessels — capillaries.
To surgery trying to be resorted to only in extreme cases. Usually indication for surgery are the spread of the inflammatory process up the vessel, the threat of thrombus formation in the pulmonary artery, attacks of acute thrombophlebitis in a patient, a condition in which a blood clot detaches from the wall and is close to the junction of the superficial and deep veins.
Thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is a dangerous pathology that requires medical care. It is not necessary to resort to dubious folk methods and treatment at home. Take care of your health!