Toxic encephalopathy: what is it?

The systematic ingestion of toxic substances in the human body cause severe damage to the brain tissue, called toxic encephalopathy. At first glance, this poisoning is not much, neither for the patient nor for others. But then, when the affected brain cells becomes larger, the symptoms that violate the patient’s quality of life and even threaten life. If untreated, this disease can develop mental disorders personality.

What is toxic encephalopathy?

It is a brain disease characterized by lesions and sometimes death of the nerve cells, resulting from exposure to different toxins on the body. At its core such a defeat is a metabolic (metabolic) processes in the nervous tissue, therefore, this type of encephalopathy is also called by the term «toxic-metabolic».

Current patterns of pathology is the acute form, which occurs rarely and only in cases of acute poisoning of the body. Worn or more common form of chronic toxic encephalopathy when the body for a long time in a state of poisoning small or medium-dose toxins or poisons.

Causes of toxic encephalopathy

It should be noted that this type of brain damage can occur by ingestion of toxins inside the body and in contact with skin or mucous membranes with them. The most common neurotoxins include:

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  • alcohol;
  • nitrogen compounds (ketone bodies) that enter the bloodstream as a result of violation of the liver;
  • the pesticides in high doses;
  • heavy metals (lead, arsenic, mercury);
  • toxins viruses and bacteria.

In a separate subgroup can distinguish the manganese toxic encephalopathy. It occurs as a result of using homemade prepared drugs containing manganese. It is deposited in the subcortical nuclei of the brain, destroying them. Manganese encephalopathy is manifested in the form of symptoms of parkinsonism (tremor of the limbs, unsteadiness of gait, involuntary movements). Also special attention is given to alcoholic encephalopathy that arise when alcoholism 3 stages. In this stage the tissue of the brain is partially destroyed, replaced by fluid, in the brain there are multiple small hemorrhages.

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How does toxic encephalopathy?

In the clinical picture there are several stages which are not clearly separated in time and manifestations and visible only with careful examination of the patient. Therefore, as a rule, the disease becomes noticeable under the height of when you’ll see the main symptoms.

Initially dominated by symptoms of excitation, aggressiveness, poor coordination in space, seizures, tremor of extremities, hallucinations, negative attitude to what is happening around. These symptoms then give way to apathy, lethargy, indifference and drowsiness. Decline and even disappear tendon reflexes, disturbed consciousness up to coma. Just the symptoms of toxic encephalopathy have identified a number of syndromes:

  • Hypothalamic syndrome. Manifested in the form of vegetative-vascular disorders (instability of blood pressure, sweating extremities, unstable thermoregulation), disorders of sleep and wakefulness. Patients often meet the so-called crises, occur closer to the evening or at night and is manifested in the form of anxiety attacks, anxiety, sudden increase or decrease pressure.
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  • Parkinsonian syndrome is a set of symptoms that combines stiffness, poor coordination of motor skills when writing, walking, performing small movements (tying shoelaces, for example). Also the patient appears trembling limbs and head.
  • An epileptic syndrome is a convulsive readiness of the brain and manifests itself in the form of convulsions with loss of consciousness. With the progression of the syndrome may experience a decrease in intelligence.
  • Mental disorders in the form of delusions, hallucinations, psychomotor excitation.
  • Spinal injuries occur in the form of violations of the sensitivity of the pelvic organs.
  • Treatment of toxic encephalopathy

    No treatment will help if there is impact on the patient’s body of toxins. So the first thing is directed treatment strategy is the cause of the encephalopathy. Then the patient is gradually withdrawn from a condition of intoxication, restores the metabolic processes in the brain and bloodstream. After stabilization of the patient’s condition, when nothing threatens his life, can a course of psychotherapy.

    • Detoxification therapy includes intravenous administration of saline, glucose, Reosorbilakt, Reopoliglyukina. It rather helps flush toxins from the body and to stop their effects on nerve cells.
    • Recovery metabolism in the brain. With this purpose, drugs used Cavinton, Cerebrolysin, Piracetam and Cinnarizine. Also a good idea to reinforce the nervous system the b vitamins, vitamin PP. When the tendency to under-pressure the patient is assigned tonic (Siberian ginseng preparations ginseng, schisandra, Shilajit).
    • If necessary, appointed symptomatic treatment. Used anticonvulsant drugs (Relanium, magnesium sulfate), tranquilizers (Medazepam, Phenazepam, Gidazepam).
    • Physical therapy, massage, acupuncture has a therapeutic effect on the recovery stage of the patient.
    • Psychotherapy is effective especially in patients with alcohol or drug toxic encephalopathy as the cause of addiction is often stress or some trauma.