Transcript of blood chemistry
Biochemical examination of blood is one of the main methods of identifying the different diseases of internal organs. It is used in their practice physicians, gynecologists, gastroenterologists, cardiologists, urologists, and other specialists. In this article, learn what kind of indicators relate to the biochemical, and what they’re saying.
The main biochemical parameters of blood
Proteins are high molecular weight compounds built from amino acids and perform many important functions (enzymatic, structural, regulatory, transport, contractile, protective and energy). Among these compounds the most often defined:
- Albumin – produced by the liver and accounts for almost 65% of blood plasma. Its decrease indicates chronic liver disease, infectious disease, bowel disease, heart failure, rheumatism, malignant tumor, poor nutrition and Smoking. A high albumin level indicates dehydration.
- Total protein – indicates the total concentration of albumin and globulins. His level is determined to confirm the lesions of the kidney or liver, of the brain.
- C-reactive protein is a marker of inflammation or penetration of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and exacerbations of chronic diseases, rheumatism, tuberculosis, or myocardial infarction.
- Glycated hemoglobin is the indicator which is used to detect diabetes. Its norm is 4 – 6.5% of the free hemoglobin, the concentration of which among women is 120 – 140 g/l for men and 160.
- Myoglobin is located in the myocardium and muscles, and is excreted in the urine. It’s growing in the kidney failure, the myocardium after injury. The decrease in its concentration is typical for polymyositis, autoimmune conditions, and myasthenic rheumatoid arthritis.
- Transferrin – protein that transports iron. His rise says about the likelihood of iron deficiency anemia and decrease of inflammation with a chronic course, cirrhosis, malignancies.
- Ferritin indicates iron stores, to diagnose iron deficiency anemia and anemia on the background of infectious, rheumatic, or malignant diseases.
- Rheumatoid factor – its growth indicates the presence of rheumatoid arthritis, other autoimmune diseases, tumors, dermatomyositis, lung injuries, viral pathologies, tuberculosis, syphilis and other infectious diseases.
Enzymes are catalysts of most chemical reactions in the human body. Blood biochemistry indicating the activity of certain enzymes helps to diagnose many different diseases of internal organs. Most often determine the concentration of the following compounds:
- Pancreatic amylase it secretes pancreatic. This substance is responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates. In acute pancreatitis the level increases dramatically. A decrease of the enzyme recorded in the toxicity and inflammation in the liver. Distinguish also the so-called alpha-amylase. This number is growing with pancreatitis, diabetes, cholecystitis, and kidney failure. In addition, its high level to identify injuries to the abdomen and after abortion.
- GGT refers to the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of amino acids contained in the liver and also in kidney tissue and pancreas, therefore, increases with the defeat of these bodies. Among men the level of this substance is not higher than 49 U/L. For women normal level of GGT should be not above 32 U/L.
- Lactate dehydrogenase – it is determined in the diagnosis of lesions of the myocardium, liver or tumours, since the concentration of this enzyme is high in hepatitis, heart attack, cirrhosis, pancreatitis and renal lesions in any conditions accompanied by hypoxia. In addition, its growth record during physical work and after the treatment of certain drugs (e.g., Aspirin).
- ALT – liver enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of amino acids. Contained in the cells of the liver, myocardium, kidney, and muscle, so when they damage alanine aminotransferase increased.
- AST is a cellular enzyme that is detected in liver, kidney, nerve, heart and muscle tissue. Increase diagnosed with myocardial infarction and strokes, pancreatitis, and acute rheumatic carditis.
- Creatine kinase is detected in the brain (creatine kinase MB in the heart). Use this indicator for early diagnosis of heart attack and pathologies of the CNS.
- Lipase – breaks down neutral fats, increases when pathologies of the pancreas or gallbladder, as well as obesity and diabetes.
- Alkaline phosphatase – it contains a large concentration in the intestinal mucosa, bone and the placenta. This enzyme affects the development of bones, so children its concentration is higher than among adults.
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Lipids – cholesterol and triglycerides. Their concentration is determined to detect abnormalities of the heart, blood vessels, liver, or atherosclerosis (concentration increases). The decrease in lipids observed in megaloblastic anemia, hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis in the terminal stage and sepsis. Carbohydrates (fructosamine and glucose) – deviation from normal values indicates diabetes mellitus, other endocrine disorders, cystic fibrosis, liver, kidney, pancreatic tumor.
Pigments (bilirubin) indicate the condition of the liver, so they determine if you suspect hepatitis, cancer, or toxic damage of hepatocytes. In addition, these pigments are tasked with cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Low molecular weight nitrogen compounds (creatinine, urea and uric acid) determined for the detection of kidney damage, gout and disorders.
Through biochemical analyses, levels of vitamin and inorganic substances (to include, for example, folic acid and cyanocobalamin, sodium, phosphorus, iron, potassium and calcium, magnesium and chlorine). The results help evaluate electrolyte balance and overall health.
As can be seen from the above information, there are many biochemical parameters, which will help you to diagnose a number of serious disorders, however, the interpretation of blood chemistry should be performed exclusively by a physician due to the age, gender of the patient, his General condition and the presence of other diseases.