Transcript of clinical and biochemical blood analysis in the child table
The correct interpretation of the classic blood tests in adults and children is entirely within the competence of the attending physician. Sometimes it happens that the individual indicators should be compared with data of the anamnesis and clinical picture, and sometimes requires the appointment of additional methods of research. As a result, the doctor gets a clue – one of the clinical and laboratory syndromes that have a quantitative confirmation and, therefore, are accurate. But knowledge of the basic rules of the classic tests will not hurt and parents.
The so-called «routine» studies that are usually conducted in adults and in children, include General analysis of blood and biochemical research. Let us examine the basic information that give these tests individually.
General analysis of blood
With this method of study can be taken as the capillary blood (of finger), and venous blood. The difference for this method of study is small, as in the General analysis of blood does not take into account the degree of oxygenation (blood oxygen saturation). And what is investigated? First of all, blood is a special liquid unique fabric, which consists of liquid portion (plasma) and formed elements. Initially, therefore, examines the hematocrit, the ratio of the liquid portion to the shaped elements. This indicator shows the thickening of the blood or breeding. For example, the child with intestinal infections and loss of fluid develops haemoconcentration – thickening of the blood due to dehydration.
Then determine the color index (average amount of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte) and the amount of hemoglobin in g/liter, which is of great importance. Currently all the work is done by computers, and these parameters are calculated exactly.
The contents of hemoglobin in blood is important in diagnosis of anaemia, chronic fatigue and worm infestation in children, the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract.
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An important classical indicator is the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which depends on the number of different molecules adsorbed on the erythrocyte membrane. As a result, the red blood cells clump together, which increases their speed. This simple test gives a lot for the emergency diagnosis of inflammatory syndrome and malignant neoplasms.
Transcript of clinical blood analysis includes total counting the cellular elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, depends on the coagulation ability). Then determined leukocyte formula, that is, the ratio of various fractions of leukocytes – monocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes, which are divided into neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils, depending on the color of the granules.
For example, neutrophils are subdivided into stab (immature form) and segmented. Therefore, when the results of the General analysis of blood contain a large number of stab neutrophils, most often we are talking about the inflammation syndrome, in which peripheral blood mobilized «graduates» and not quite Mature. For worm infestations and allergic reactions in the baby’s blood increases the number of eosinophils.
The called reticulocytes are young and not quite Mature erythrocytes, which are remnants of the cell nucleus in the form of a net structure. They are «growing up», you lose the kernel, and to increase the surface area gain of a biconcave shape similar to the scattering lens. This enables the erythrocyte to carry the maximum amount of hemoglobin. A large amount of the hemoglobin in newborns is associated with the transition of the fetal (fetal) hemoglobin in the «adult form». Sometimes when this happens jaundice, called physiologic, it should not be afraid of parents.
Lymphocytes and monocytes are immune system cells that protect the baby from infections. The lymphocytes of the child occur more frequently than in adults, but as they grow, their number decreases. The norm of separate indicators, which provides a General analysis of blood, are given below (see table 1).
Biochemical analysis of blood
After the basic ratio in blood and determined its cellular structure, it begins the study of various substances contained in the plasma (the liquid portion of blood), obtained by centrifugation.
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Normal blood contains hundreds of thousands of different compounds, but the most important, «broad strokes» biochemical analysis of the child and the adult are:
- Plasma proteins, which are albumins, globulins, bearing the protective function (has antibodies) and fibrinogen, which is ready at any moment to help stop the bleeding, turning into fibrin. Proteins perform transport functions, in addition, they create oncotic pressure of blood plasma.
- Glucose is blood sugar. It reflects the «energy potential» of the body, the pancreas is important in the diagnosis of diabetes.
- A number of compounds, speaking about the functions of the liver: bilirubin is a breakdown product of red blood cells and enzymes (ALT, AST, GGTP, alkaline phosphatase). Their increase indicates the destruction of liver cells, necrosis. In children increases the bilirubin and the levels of these enzymes with jaundice and hepatitis A, jaundice and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
- The decay products of protein (urea, uric acid).
- Fat metabolism is represented by a different density lipoproteins and cholesterol.
- Electrolytes is the most important part of the plasma. She is represented as cations and anions, which create and maintain the acid-alkaline condition in the body: potassium, sodium, calcium, chlorine.
In addition, any biochemical analysis is represented by a study conducted at the request of the doctor, for example, with unclear inflammatory process are samples for C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor that can be positive. In normal blood they are not. Does not make sense to list all substances that are listed in the table because in any laboratory to increase their number tenfold. The doctor has to navigate in this variety of samples and compounds and be able to correctly interpret the test results, comparing them with clinical data.
Biochemical analysis is the result of the work of the staff of the laboratory with the use of complex reagents and requiring a high technical level. Therefore, when choosing a paid analysis is always necessary to specify which certificate the lab and any chemicals it works. It is no secret that the struggle of private laboratories for the customer and lower prices for tests are made by buying cheap and «almost expired» reagents, as well as the production of cheap drugs are often at the expense of low-quality substances, which are «almost no effect».
So do not skimp on getting an important to the child’s health information and handled in the laboratory, having the high coincidence based on the test results when conducting a peer comparison and a reliable, proven reputation.
A separate list of results of biochemical studies of blood of the child is shown in table 2.