Transcript of complete blood count in adults: table
The appointment of a physician General analysis of blood – one of the most common directions for research. The results of the analysis are informative in the diagnosis of pathological processes and in assessing the dynamics of treatment. This study helps to identify or assume the presence of inflammatory and allergic conditions, control the immune system through the analysis of the physical and chemical composition of blood.
Indications for study
General analysis of blood (or clinical) is a classic study and assigned clinical and professional medical check-UPS during pregnancy in women with different diseases or injuries in the outpatient and inpatient settings. Also the study shows with the aim of monitoring the condition of the body in the treatment of almost all diseases.
The determined parameters
In General, the analysis of the blood revealed the following data:
- the level of hemoglobin;
- the total number of leukocytes leukocyte formula (the determination of the number of all types of leukocytes);
- the total number of red blood cells;
- the number of reticulocytes – immature red blood cells, recently received the blood from the bone marrow;
- level color indicator;
- the total number of platelets;
- thrombocrit – the number of platelet on volume unit of blood;
- levels of hematocrit;
- ESR – erythrocyte (in the old version – ROE, sed rate).
In some urgent cases, determine the so-called «Troika» – the hemoglobin, leukocytes and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. This allows you to quickly find the patient and take immediate actions medical assistance. However, after that, be sure to identify all required data in the clinical analysis.
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According to testimony carried a detailed analysis with more detailed study of the elements of the blood. Thus calculate the absolute and relative values of number of uniform elements is measured in the volume of red blood cells, the width of their distribution in different units. The results based on compliance or deviation from them, allow to establish the presence or absence of changes in various biological processes. Values corresponding to normal, different for children and adults, and some for men and women.
The norm of indicators of the General (clinical) blood in adults. Table
Transcript of General blood analysis for individual indicators
In modern medicine, blood is investigated in most cases with the help of special equipment. Each indicator corresponds to an acronym consisting of Latin letters, as indicated in the table. For more in-depth, detailed study adopted the appropriate designation indicators. Sometimes the blood examined by the classical method, using a microscope and blood smear on the slide. This method is also applicable in the event of malfunctions of the equipment.
The most important in number and function are the red blood cells. These are red blood cells, representing a biconcave discs. Erythrocytes take part in gas exchange, blood clots, and transporting antibodies, immune complexes, medicines and other substances. Increasing the concentration of red blood cells (polycythemia) may indicate a pathology in the cardiovascular, respiratory and hematopoietic systems. And lowering their concentration (erythropenia) – about the blood loss and lack of production of vitamin B12. Pathologically inflated figure – erythremia – says the failure of the hematopoietic system.
The main component of red blood cells – protein, red pigment, which includes iron. The main function of hemoglobin:
- part in the gas exchange: delivering oxygen to tissues and from tissues – carbon dioxide;
- maintaining acid-base balance (equilibrium) in the body.
Reduction in hemoglobin indicates iron deficiency in the body and is often a symptom of anemia or other blood disorders. Increased hemoglobin possible with cardiac or pulmonary failure. Color indicator – evidence of saturation of the hemoglobin of red blood cells.
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This indicator expresses the percentage of RBCs in centrifuged or separated blood to the total amount of the total volume of investigational blood. The increase coincides with the hematocrit polycythemia, erythremia, and found in their respective pathologies, and also in a state of shock. The hematocrit level may be low in conditions involving an increase in volume of the liquid portion of blood (pregnancy, gipergidratace).
White blood cells, the so-called records, the function of which is the formation of a thrombus at the lesion. Platelets stimulate the clotting process – form a blood «threads», which «tighten» the wound. The excess concentration of these elements (thrombocytosis) of blood indicates a recent surgical operations, the possibility of malignancy. Thrombocytopenia – reduced platelet count – possible infections, poisonings, certain medication, acute or chronic leukemia.
The formed elements of blood of different groups, the so-called «white» blood cells. Each group performs a specific function. The increase in the total number of leukocytes (leukocytosis) is observed in inflammatory processes, a decrease (leukopenia) – hematological pathologies. Leukocytic formula is a complex of two populations of cells:
- granular (granulocytes) – basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils characterized by cytoplasmic granularity;
- non-granular (agranulocytes) lymphocytes, monocytes – not having the granularity of cytoplasm.
Basophils normal absent or does not exceed 1% of the total number of leukocytes. Increasing the concentration of basophils may indicate the presence of an allergic component, hypothyroid syndrome, chickenpox, chronic myelogenous leukemia, ulcerative colitis or status after splenectomy (removing the spleen).
Neutrophils perform a protective function, killing microbes in the bloodstream. The presence in the blood of myelocytes or young (immature) neutrophils tells about the hematological problems.
Eosinophils are actively involved in immune processes. The increase of their concentration often indicates the presence of allergic reactions, parasitic infestation and at the beginning of the recovery period after severe infections. The decrease in the number of eosinophils may indicate physical exhaustion.
Lymphocytes represent blood cells of the immune system that are directly involved in the processes of cellular and humoral immunity. Excess concentrations indicates infectious process, the transition disease into a chronic, or early recovery. The reduction of lymphocytes is possible with immunodeficiency, presence of chronic somatic diseases, steroid therapy.
Monocytes to form macrophages are found in infectious and inflammatory foci, absorbing foreign particles. Their level is increased in rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, infectious mononucleosis, reduced during therapy with steroids and after surgery.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
This figure is a nonspecific indicator of different kinds of pathological processes in the body. Excess erythrocyte sedimentation rate often indicates inflammation, heart attack, cancer, traumatic injuries, burns, diabetes, pathological changes in the liver and kidneys. The reduction in ESR is possible when there is fluid overload, haematological diseases, liver damage.