Triglycerides in the blood: the normal women and men
In the plasma portion of blood contains important substances for the body – triglycerides. It is an organic compound of a class of lipids, or fats. Their name is due to the origin: the triglycerides are derived from glycerol and are composed of three molecules of fatty acids. Biochemical analysis of blood triglycerides helps in the diagnosis of many pathological conditions of the human body.
The basic concept
Triglycerides (TG) are the ether of glycerine in a complex with three molecules of fatty acids (higher and secondary). In fact, triglycerides are neutral fats. Distinguish triglycerides:
- simple – contain all three molecules of one acid;
- complex in their composition are 2 or 3 acid.
TG enter the body from the outside with the consumption of food and synthesized within the liver and intestines. As you know, fats (including triglycerides) are important element of nutrition as proteins and carbohydrates. In the body of TG doing energetic function and are an important component of cell membranes. The greatest amount of triglycerides in the body contains fatty tissue, however part of them is present in the composition of the blood. In the process of blood circulation and energy is delivered to other tissues, but mainly muscle.
Triglycerides circulate in the blood in combination with proteins. These complexes, the lipoproteins can be depending on the composition of the high, low and very low density. The levels of triglycerides in the blood depends on gender and age.
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Norm of triglycerides in the blood
The unit of measurement of TG in the blood – millimole per liter. In women, normal levels depending on the age range from 0.4 to 2.71 mmol/L. the Upper limit of normal:
- in children under 10 years of 1.24;
- adolescents up to 15 years – 1,48;
- 20 – 25 years – 1,5;
- to 35 years – 1.7;
- to 40 years – 1,99;
- up to 50 of 2.42;
- up to 60 – 2,96;
- 60 – 70 years of age, a 2.7 to 2.71.
During pregnancy and while taking oral contraceptives in women is often observed increase in the content of triglycerides in the blood, but it is considered a physiological transient phenomenon. Men have standards ranging from 0.34 to 3.62 mmol/l. the Upper boundary:
- in children under 10 years was 1.13;
- adolescents up to 15 years – 1,41;
- 20 – 25 – 2,27;
- 35 years – 3,01;
- to 40 years – 3,62;
- to 50 – 3.7 V;
- up to 60 3,23;
- 60 – 70 years and older – 2,94.
Blood test for triglycerides
To determine the level of TG carried out the biochemical analysis of venous blood taken in the morning on an empty stomach. Half an hour before donation excludes physical and nervous tension, and Smoking. The analysis is aimed at:
- determine the likelihood of cardiovascular pathology;
- identify trends of development of acute pancreatitis;
- evaluation of the effectiveness of power with reduced consumption of fats;
- control dynamics parameters after drug treatment.
High rates (2.5 to 5.5 mmol/l) indicates risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease. For example, triglycerides of 3.3 will be maxed, with the exception of men aged 35 to 40 years, when the allowed limit 3.62 mmol/L. However, the result interpreterpath doctor individually. Very high levels (above 5.5 mmol/l) referred to as the high probability of cardiovascular pathology and risk of developing acute pancreatitis.
A low content of triglycerides in the blood
Low levels of TG (0 – 0.3 mmol/l) may indicate the following problems:
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- an unbalanced diet;
- increased secretory activity of the thyroid or parathyroid glands;
- chronic diseases of bronchopulmonary system;
- myasthenia gravis;
- cerebral infarction;
- trauma, burns;
- severe illness and liver damage;
- the administration of large doses of vitamin C.
Upon receipt of the result of the low-TG treatment of existing chronic diseases or the regulation of lifestyle (as in malnutrition).
High rates of TG in the blood
Many diseases increase triglyceride levels in the blood:
- cardiovascular disease: ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, chronic hypertension (hypertension), atherosclerosis of blood vessels;
- heavy processes in the liver: hepatitis, cirrhosis;
- metabolic disturbances: diabetes, obesity;
- diseases of the pancreas: the pancreatitis – both acute and chronic;
- genetic diseases: down syndrome, thalassemia;
- neurogenic anorexia;
- chronic alcoholism.
How to reduce triglycerides level?
The most physiologic and safe measures to reduce the level of triglycerides in the blood are following a special diet combined with regular physical exercise feasible. Should be excluded from the diet sugar, flour and confectionery products, alcohol, fatty meats, sausages, smoked and fried dishes. Contraindicated products containing medium-chain triglycerides – palm and coconut oil. To add to the food is recommended for seafood, fish containing omega-3 fatty acids (it’s salmon, mackerel, sardines, tuna, trout).
Effective replacement of animal proteins to vegetable – reducing the amount of meat and eggs in the diet with increasing consumption of legumes, soybeans and soy products. In daily menu should be a large number of plant foods, given that omega-3 acids are found in foods such as lettuce, walnuts, and Flaxseed. Red meat is better to replace white meat chicken or rabbit. The fiber contained in cereals, vegetables and fruit also reduces the level of triglycerides in the blood. For the prevention of constipation by eating fiber, you should drink plenty of water (more than before starting the diet).
In the absence of results from dieting prescribers to reduce TG:
- Fibrates (Fibricor, Fenofibrate, Gemfibrozil).
- Nicotinic acid (Vitamin PP, Niaspan).
- Drugs with a high content of omega-3 fatty acids (Fish oil capsules, Eikonal).
- Statins (Lovastatin, Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, Fluvastatin).
While one day revealed a high level of triglycerides in the blood, and after a period of dieting or ending of course of treatment drugs should take take a blood control analysis.