Triglycerides: what is it?
The main source of energy in the human body are complex organic compounds – triglycerides (TG), which come from outside with food and are synthesized within the liver and intestines. TG circulate in the blood, delivering energy to the cells of the tissues of the body. The excess energy in the form of triglycerides deposited in adipocytes – fat cells. An important indicator is the level of TG in the blood that determines the risk of atherosclerotic vascular lesions.
Triglycerides: what is it?
From the chemical side triglycerides are neutral fats and are a complex ester of glycerol (a trivalent alcohol) combined with three molecules of higher and secondary fatty acids (stearic, palmitic, linolenic, linoleic, oleic, and others). Simple triglycerides composed of molecules of one acid, complex molecules contain two or three acids.
The triglycerides contained in the food ingested and broken down under the action of the digestive juices fatty acids and glycerol. These substances are absorbed by the epithelium of the small intestine, the cells of which the reverse synthesis of triglycerides. TG are now part of lipoproteins, which enter the bloodstream and delivered to cells of various tissues. In adipose tissue there is again the synthesis of triglycerides that are deposited in adipocytes. In muscle TG perform energy function (the energy source). «Internal» triglycerides synthesized by the liver from fatty acids and glycerol contained mainly carbohydrates. TG is the main component of cell membranes of tissue, performing a structural function.
Triglycerides in the blood
Lipoproteins (LP) is a complex of triglycerides and proteins. In this form of TG transported by blood to tissues. PL are compounds of very low, low and high density – VLDL, LDL and HDL. The most important in the transport of triglycerides, of LP of very low density. Triglyceride levels in the blood can be analyzed and has its own norms. Elevated or reduced rates of TG in biochemical analysis of blood may indicate various pathologies in the body.
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Standards for levels of triglycerides in the blood
Normal levels are different for men, women and children. Depending on the age of the normal range within:
- men – from 0.5 to 3.7 millimol per litre (mmol/l);
- women – from 0.4 to 2.96 mmol/l;
- children (depending on gender) – from 0.34 to 1.13 mmol/L.
Exceeding the normal parameters of TG in the blood is possible for the following reasons:
- hereditary hyperlipidemia;
- overweight and obesity;
- cardiovascular pathology;
- atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels;
- diabetes mellitus;
- liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis);
- alcoholism with liver damage;
- increased food;
- kidney disease;
- anorexia neurotic Genesis;
- pancreatitis (acute and chronic);
- hypothyroid syndrome;
- permanent some medications (oral contraceptives, beta-blockers, interferons);
- a genetic disease;
- improper preparation of the blood (eating, alcohol, Smoking before giving blood for analysis).
Lowering normal levels of triglycerides may indicate pathological conditions, such as:
- gipertireoze syndrome;
- pathology of the gastrointestinal tract;
- violation of absorptive function in the intestines;
- chronic pneumonia;
- heavy damage kidneys and liver;
- extensive burns;
- severe injury;
- low power;
- abuse intake of ascorbic acid.
Blood triglyceride levels
The analysis is taken venous blood. Biochemical study is being conducted to assess the risk of formation of atherosclerotic plaques, development of atherosclerosis and potential problems of the cardiovascular system. Analysis is also carried out with the purpose of the dynamic indicators after compliance with nishiiwai diet. It is desirable to conduct research in any state that can be characterized by the increase or decrease in the level of triglycerides in the blood. In preparation for the study should:
- to refrain from eating 12 hours prior to blood sampling;
- to stop Smoking and eliminate physical and emotional stress for half an hour before giving blood for analysis.
At higher levels of TG necessary actions for its reduction. Measures should be taken to normalize the weight, to keep follow a low-fat diet to dramatically limit the consumption of starchy foods, eliminate from the diet of refined sugar and pastries. An effective measure is to add in your menu foods containing omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil, mackerel, tuna, salmon, sardines). Meals of the recommended varieties of fish should be eaten at least twice a week. The important role played by physical activity according to individual possibilities. Smoking and alcohol should be abandoned altogether.
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Diabetes need to strictly control glucose levels in the blood. According to indications assigned to drugs that reduce triglycerides: statins, fibrates, vitamin e, and dietary supplements containing omega-3 acids.
A reduced level of TG should be normalized on the basis of reasons. Often need treatment of the disease that caused the condition. Under reduced meals need a full – fledged diet- high-calorie, but balanced. In hyperthyroidism you need to take medications prescribed by a consultant endocrinologist and to monitor the level of thyroid hormones. Vitamin C should be taken not to exceed a daily dose.
After the events on normalization of triglyceride levels you should monitor their effectiveness re-donation of blood for biochemical analysis. The result will show the dynamics of and the doctor will give recommendations for further treatment and way of life.