True polycythemia: what is it, symptoms and treatment photo

Polycythemia Vera is a rare disease that is more common in the elderly (over 60 years) and is characterized by failure of hematopoiesis. Applies to benign tumors. The causes of the disease are still unknown. There is a theory that uncontrolled cell division starts by a mutation of their cells predecessor. Despite the purity of the tumor and poor progression of the process, the disease can lead to serious complications.

Polycythemia Vera. What is it?

It’s a blood disorder that relates to benign neoplastic disease. Primarily affects the cell-predecessor of myelopoiesis, resulting in the uncontrolled, unlimited division and growth of blood cells. As a result of this process in peripheral blood dramatically increases the number of red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells, which leads to increased blood viscosity and increased hematocrit.

The disease is more common in adults older than 60 years, but can occur in children and even newborns. The childhood form of the disease Wekesa is most difficult. Among full-term newborns to about 2 – 5% of affected preterm the frequency of occurrence increases to 15%.

The increase in the number of red blood cells called polycythemia, it is a typical symptom of polycythemia. There are true polycythemia (primary polycythemia), which occurs when the disease Wekesa, and about polycythemia (or relative) that occurs when reducing the liquid portion of blood with burns, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration.

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There are also secondary polycythemia (this is the so-called secondary polycythemia) when the increase in the number of red blood cells caused by lack of oxygen in the tissues. Hypoxia stimulates production of erythropoietin, which stimulates the growth of red blood cells. This type of pathology is found in smokers with lung disease, people in the mountains on the heights or in the hemoglobinopathies, and in violation of formulation of erythropoietin – hormone that controls red blood cell production.

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The symptoms and manifestations of the disease

The clinical picture of the disease will depend on the stage, only three of them.

  • The initial stage of the disease may be asymptomatic and be delayed up to 5 years. The only manifestations of disease are too «good» blood counts – high hemoglobin, red blood cells and platelets. Along with this, will mark an increased hematocrit. Over time, you can join the complaints of the nervous system that are caused by viscous blood and lack of oxygen in the nerve cells. These complaints include headache, sleep disturbances, dizziness, heaviness in the head, ringing in the ears and blurred vision. In one third of patients in the initial stage may develop hypertension.
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  • Stage of proliferation or stage is the height of the disease is characterized by bright signs and symptoms. The patient increases the liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), a progressive cerebral symptoms such as convulsions, epileptic seizures, loss of memory, depression. Skin becoming characteristic of this illness is bright-red, cherry hue. Most often reddens the skin of the face and extremities. Interesting is the fact that the alternation of bleeding and thrombosis. So, patients along with bleeding gums, and injection of vascular sclera may be thrombosis of the vessels of the extremities with gangrene formation. Also blood clots can clog vessels in the brain, leading to stroke, clogged blood vessels of the liver or spleen will lead to infarction of these organs, the coronary arteries to myocardial infarction. Simultaneously, you may experience nosebleeds, bleeding in the brain and the abdominal cavity. Frequent concomitant diseases are gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers, as well as gout and renal colic, which is caused by a metabolic disorder uric acid.
  • Stage of exhaustion or myelosclerosis. The most severe of the stages is characterized by exhaustion, weight loss, sometimes in the blood anemia. The disease at this stage, becomes chronic, erythremia can go into myeloid leukemia or myelofibrosis. Hemorrhagic syndrome progresses, appear serious infectious complications, sepsis and a possible ruptured spleen.
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    Treatment and prognosis polycythemia

    The treatment of the disease is only in the Hematology Department under the close control of the blood counts.

  • Cupping is a method of treatment in which the patient every 1 to 2 days to take part of blood (approximately 500 ml) to reduce the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in it. Successful bloodletting, if the red blood cells decreased to 4,5 – 5,0×1012/l and hemoglobin up to 150 g/l the body weight to 55 kg is used eritrotsitopenia when after blood sampling produce centrifugation, separation of erythrocyte mass from the plasma and returning the liquid portion of blood patient.
  • Cytostatics (Mielosan, Imifos) is prescribed to suppress the growth of tumor cells.
  • Interferon is assigned simultaneously with cytotoxic agents enhances the immune properties of the organism.
  • Treatment of diseases of folk remedies is possible, but only in combination with basic medical methods. Recommended diet, which also thins the blood, and drinking lemon-garlic infusion. It is also very important mission. The amount of fluid should be 50 ml/kg of body weight per day.

    The prognosis of the disease depends on which of the stages revealed the disease. If it’s the third stage, the outcome will depend on which form of leukemia transformirovalsya polycythemia. On average, patients after diagnosis of polycythemia live 10 – 15 years.

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