Ultrasound of the veins and vessels of the lower extremities: indications for
Ultrasound of vessels of lower extremities is one of the most effective methods of investigation in disorders of the venous circulation. During the diagnostic procedure involves the estimation of character of blood flow changes the anatomy of veins and valves and identifies the causes of such changes.
When do I need an ultrasound?
The purpose for conducting this type of research vessels of the lower extremities is issued as a vascular surgeon or flebologia on the basis of examination of the patient, medical history and collection of complaints.
To do vascular ultrasound is recommended when the following symptoms:
- sharp pain in the leg;
- change the color of the skin — redness, darkening, cyanosis or pallor of the skin;
- changes in the structure of the skin, seals;
- periodic tingling in the legs;
- pain in the legs, aggravated by walking;
- weakness in the muscles;
- the appearance of visible veins.
In such cases should not be delayed access to a doctor and passing the appropriate examination.
Ultrasound of lower limb vessels should be done in such diseases:
- diabetes and in the background of the development of chronic venous insufficiency;
- varicose veins are superficial veins;
- thrombosis and thrombophlebitis;
- trophic ulcers of the feet;
- atherosclerosis and hereditary predisposition to it.
Special preparations for the diagnosis through ultrasound of the vessels of the legs is not required. It is enough to hygiene before visiting a specialist. Diagnosis is performed in the supine position using a sensor, which surveyed vessels.
The purpose of the study
The diagnosis depends on the study of some vessels occurs. Using ultrasound veins of the lower extremities is the identification of such diseases:
- varicose veins;
- chronic venous insufficiency;
- valve insufficiency of perforating veins and the deep system; and in this way they are marking before the operation.
Ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities allows to determine the cause and source of the narrowing of the vessel lumen, impairing blood flow. This is mainly for determining the position of blood clots. Education data can be recorded in one place, and get into the bloodstream as a result of separation. If diagnosed thromboembolism, detachment of a thrombus — need urgent ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities to reveal the localization of detached blood clot, the size and the degree of clogging of blood vessels. Such a condition dangerous to their severe health consequences, including death.
Problems with arterial blood circulation is necessary appointment and ultrasound scans of the arteries. The results of the study can be identified:
- obliterating endarteritis;
- chronic arterial insufficiency;
- Raynaud’s disease;
- aneurysms of the peripheral arterial vessels of the legs.
The study found atherosclerotic plaque. The evaluation of their size, homogeneity of the structure, the presence of complications. Ultrasound of arteries has its own characteristics. During studies on a limb wearing a special cuff to measure the pressure. With their help, conducted functional tests, allowing to evaluate the performance of vessel under different conditions. The patient must change position: standing or sitting.
Ultrasound of the lower extremities performed in the period of treatment to control the dynamics and as a preventive measure in case of suspicion for the development of a disease. The data obtained are evaluated by a specialist for multiple indicator and results conclusion about necessary of appropriate treatment.
Are estimated as follows:
- the gleam of the vessels and their permeability;
- the speed of blood flow;
- localization of thrombi and assessment;
- the operation of the valves of the venous channel.
During ultrasound of the leg arteries is evaluated:
- the thickness of the vascular wall.
- permeability and narrowing of the arteries;
- blood flow depending on the phase of the heart (systole or diastole);
- the speed of blood flow and the dynamics of its changes.
In addition to this study performed arteriography — diagnostic method, which is given the most complete and comprehensive information about the condition of the vascular system. However, its drawback is the invasive nature and complexity of execution.
Kinds of methods
Under ultrasound of the vessels of the legs means the carrying out of research with the help of ultrasound diagnostics — Doppler ultrasound. The survey can be done for free in the clinic at the place of residence or paid in any medical institution.
In practice, using two kinds of ultrasound of vessels of lower extremities:
- conventional ultrasonic Doppler, or Doppler ultrasound;
- duplex angioscanning.
The result of the Doppler ultrasound becomes a check of the received data in a graphic black-and-white image of the blood flow in the form of a line. Fixed diplomaticheskii indicators on the basis of which is dopplerogram — description of the characteristics. Widely used in the examination of the arterial vessels of the lower extremities. In addition, there is a possibility to do an ultrasound of the legs directly at the bedside of the bedridden patients without the need for unnecessary anxiety as there are portable devices.
When performing duplex angiotenzinovye the result is a color image of the vessel based on the speed and movement of blood flow. Today it is one of the most accurate methods. With it is estimated permeability as a deep and superficial venous reservoirs, the condition of the vessel walls, valves any veins. In addition, this technique allows not only to record the violation of blood flow in a particular area, to determine the cause, but also to establish the location of the clot, its size, the degree of venous compliance.
Depending on the applied method of the study the results will be different. During ultrasound of vessels of lower extremities is assessed the functional ability of the vessels: the intensity and peculiarity of blood flow. The data can only indirectly determine the structural changes and the available pathological lesions disrupting the work flow.
To turn duplex scanning allows to evaluate the functional performance, the causes of deterioration of blood circulation in the vessel and to determine their source, the blood clot, atherosclerotic plaque, tumor formation.
Advantages of the ultrasound lower limb veins is its safety, efficiency and accessibility. The results of the study are recorded directly after the vote, which is especially important in situations that require an immediate response.