Urea: the norm in the blood of men, women and children
The process of protein breakdown in the body ends with the allocation of urea. This process is completely normal, because the body converts only useful part of the food, and the remnants are removed. Urea itself is made in the liver from the conversion of ammonia. The main purpose of the allocation of urea – ammonia which is very toxic to the human body.
The level of this component in the blood talking about the severity of the pathological process occurring in the body. Also, the dynamic analysis demonstrates the success of the treatment of disease or about the need to change therapy.
Causes of fluctuations in
The level of urea and all other components of homeostasis may fluctuate in different directions – increase or decrease. On the dynamics of the indicator is affected by nutrition, level of physical activity and other factors. For example, with the shortage of protein urea is low, while its excess numbers in the urine and blood will also increase. This happens most often, if a person protein diet.
Another option to increase the rate of blood – restriction of the use of salt, which the body tries to balance the osmotic pressure and increases blood. Also, the urea rises when the use of certain drugs, particularly Chloramphenicol, Lasix, anabolic drugs, Tetracycline, Furosemide, Gentamicin, and others.
Urea in the blood deviates from normal values and during pregnancy. This is due to the fact that a woman’s body rebuilds its own processes to meet the needs of the mother not so much, how many the baby. Therefore, the level of urea in pregnancy is somewhat less than usual. These figures do not disturb the doctors, but under surveillance take those pregnant women who suffer from diabetes mellitus, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or have kidney stones.
Function of substance
As with any substance that is involved in maintaining the constancy of the environment, urea plays an important role. It is non-toxic, easily penetrates through the cell walls in the liver, spleen and kidneys, and «brings» bring the water needed by the cells of the internal organs with dehydration. Urea is also readily eliminated from the cells through the kidneys along with the urine. If the kidneys are not doing their function, the urea will remain in the body and returns to the blood plasma where its level will be above the permissible limits.
The increase of urea in the blood provokes in the first place diseases of the blood and the development of severe infections, pathology of the excretory system.
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The norm indicators
The increased urea in the blood of an adult is in the range from 2.5 to 8.3 mmol per liter. Usually men average higher than women. In children, normal is somewhat lower.
The norm for children and adolescents up to fourteen years – the content of a component from 1.8 to 6.4 mmol / liter, but the children in the first few days after birth the level of urea can reach adult performance. This is due to normal physiological processes of this age.
Older people who have concentration function of urine decreased, and have a low rate of urea, about 1 mmol/l below normal.
Elevated levels of urea in blood
A blood test revealed elevated levels of urea in blood, makes doctors for a range of diagnoses. The most common diagnosis is uremic syndrome – a condition in which the addition of urea accumulates in blood and other substances – ammonia, creatinine, uric acid and others. The presence of these substances in the blood signals the pathology of the urinary tract, and the consequences can be very severe – from intoxication to death.
Symptoms increase substances in the blood
Signs of excessive accumulation of urea in the blood, at first, are not specific. Patients feel headache, fatigue and drowsiness. Because these symptoms are common to many conditions and diseases, patients usually do not pay attention to them or trying to relax a bit.
As soon as the decomposition products of protein will accumulate even more, they will poison the body from the inside. Already at this stage, patients feel nausea, vomiting and irregularity. Impaired vision, there is a haze of images, blurring of images and discomfort from bright light. Blood vessels become brittle, minor bleeding (from nose, gums). The characteristic symptom on the part of the excretory system – the lack of urine.
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Since the decay products are not body, they seek their own way out. As a rule, of nitrogen components seeping through the mucous membranes and the skin, where the effects of uremia is especially noticeable. Long duration uremic syndrome threatens to exacerbate pathological changes in the kidneys. This provokes an increase in blood pressure (up to high levels), poor circulation in other organs. In heart pericarditis develops.
Treatment of uremic syndrome
The main event in the treatment of severe uremia – dialysis. The technique of dialysis is to purify the blood system using a semi-permeable membrane and the excretion of blood breakdown products of vital activity of organism. The procedure of hemodialysis, although and improves the patient’s condition, however, can only for some time to prolong his life. Later comes the borderline state, in which the developing sepsis, pneumonia or uremic coma.
The best way for a patient to have a transplant, after which the excretory function is getting better, and the urea level reduced to normal. The change should happen before the edge of the stage; it is better if the donor is not to be in kinship with the recipient.
A reduced level of urea in blood
The decrease in the level of urea can be triggered by pregnancy and errors of nutrition (e.g., starvation). However, there are other, more serious reasons for which the level of urea may fall below normal:
- severe liver pathology, which directly synthesizes urea;
- poisoning with poisonous substances;
- violation of the process of protein breakdown;
- finding the patient on hemodialysis or administration of glucose.
By lowering the urea needed power correction and treatment of other pathologies causing this condition.