Uric acid in blood: what is it?
Uric acid is one of the important biochemical parameters of blood, which characterizes the process of purine metabolism. This article explains how it is determined and what is the meaning of the results obtained.
Uric acid. What is it? Testimony to the determination
The term «purines» are called compounds found in human cells and form uric acid in metabolism. A small amount is synthesized in the body, but the majority comes with the products. When proper metabolism of formed uric acid acts as antioxidant and protects normal concentration of blood vessels. Under certain conditions, the process of the metabolism of purines can be broken, leading to hyperuricemia, which increases the level of uric acid in the blood. The analysis, which provides for the determination of uric acid, prescribed in the following cases:
- If there are signs of gout (especially for pain in the big toe and in the ankle joints).
- When burdened heredity (if direct relatives was diagnosed with gout). Doing analysis for early detection of the disease, which is clinically not manifest itself.
- For the diagnosis of hepatic pathologies.
- To determine the degree of risk in existing pathologies of the cardiovascular system (e.g., cardiac ischemia or hypertension), diabetes, obesity.
- For the detection of urolithiasis.
- Uric acid content is determined during chemotherapy of the brain, especially in leukemia, when massively destroyed cells and significantly increases the number of the specified acid.
- During the complex examination of the patients with renal insufficiency.
- Uric acid is determined in parallel with the conduct of raumprobe that helps determine the nature of the inflammation in the joints.
- To assess the effectiveness of the treatment of gout.
- When fasting, excessive use of alcohol and other conditions accompanied by increase of uric acid.
The etiology of hyperuricemia
The normal uric acid is 150 to 350 µmol/l in women and 210 – 420 for men. The result is affected by certain factors:
- eating habits (excessive consumption of food of animal origin hyperuricemia find often);
- age (uric acid is higher in older people, which can be explained by natural cell death due to age-related changes in the body);
- more uric acid detected in men, which can be associated with a large cell mass and a high need for protein for the physical work;
- the state of hypoxia, alcohol abuse, sun exposure, physical activity also represent an increase in uric acid;
- during pregnancy 1st and 2nd trimester this acid decreased 3 – increased.
The test results can be affected by taking certain medicines. Thus, treatment with aspirin, b-blockers, diuretics, antibiotics or antiviral and antidepressants, cytostatics or corticosteroids leads to an accumulation of uric acid. And, conversely, its reduction can be detected at the receiving antipsychotic medication, contraceptives, contrast agents, and Allopurinol. Among the main causes of hyperuricaemia include:
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- The flow of high quantities of purines from food (this leads to excessive consumption of meat and dairy products, alcohol, acidic juices and wines, sweeteners).
- Excessive formation of uric acid, which occurs during active cell death (e.g., hemolytic anemia), pneumonia, psoriasis, as a result of lead poisoning, ammonia, and the presence of malignant diseases, which are accompanied by the rapid destruction of onkokletok.
- Uric acid in the blood increases with the lack of certain enzymes in hypothyroidism and cirrhosis.
- Pathology of the kidneys (if uric acid is not easily excreted). Among them we can indicate renal failure, preeclampsia during pregnancy, polycystic kidney disease, poisoning, which are damaged renal tubules (e.g., lead or beryllium).
Sometimes in the serum recorded reduced uric acid (mainly in celiac disease, gigantism or acromegaly, myelomatosis, among persons, who in your diet adhere to the principles of vegetarianism).
How to lower uric acid?
In the primary stages of an excess of the compounds is clinically apparent, but over time begin to disturb the abdominal pain and constipation, are observed myalgia and joint pain, excessive sweating, and fluctuations in blood pressure. The symptoms are nonspecific, so the only way to diagnose hyperuricemia is a biochemical analysis. If you find deviations prescribed diet and drug therapy.
In some cases, effectively reduce the uric acid you can use proper nutrition. To do this, from the diet of patients eliminate foods that contain large amounts of purines (fatty fish and meat, offal and meat products, alcohol, canned food), and also limit the consumption of cheese, chocolate and cocoa, spinach and radish. It is recommended to increase the number of vegetables that contain potassium (eggplant, cabbage, cucumbers, peppers) and fruit (peaches, bananas, melons, cranberries, grapes). In addition, patients should receive at least 2.5 liters of fluid a day.
If you reduce the level of uric acid diet is not possible, medical treatment. Excessive synthesis and excretion of urate violation of the use of inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. The most commonly prescribed Allopurinol (the drug should be used with caution in renal failure). Also in therapy using probenecid, pegloticase (requires pre-admission antihistamines and corticosteroids).