Vascular dementia: what is it?

Dementia is called dementia, accompanied by loss of previously held knowledge and skills and difficulty in acquiring new. Dementia should be distinguished from mental retardation (mental retardation) – underdevelopment of the psyche in childhood, in which the intellectual functions of the brain and do not reach a sufficient level.

Vascular dementia – what is it?

Have dementia can be a variety of causes – genetic diseases, intoxication, infection. The origins of vascular dementia – blood circulation in the brain. Morphological substrate are postinfarction cysts – pockets of softening of the nervous tissue formed on the site of the hemorrhage (infarction – cessation of blood flow in a particular vessel, with subsequent death of tissue that the vessel fueled). Allocates three groups of risk factors for vascular dementia:

1. The primary – contributing to the defeat of the vascular wall of any blood vessel in the body:

  • Smoking.
  • Impaired blood pressure (both increase and decrease).
  • Elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood.
  • Diabetes.
  • Rheumatism.
  • Syphilis.
  • Diseases of the blood coagulation system, etc.

2. Secondary – selectively affecting the arteries and capillaries of the brain: atherosclerosis, amyloidosis, hyalinosis, thrombosis and thromboembolism.
3. Tertiary destructive lesions of brain tissue due to ischemia: infarcts and microinfarcts, ischemic white matter.

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A significant role in the formation of the disease is played by genetic predisposition, excess body weight and alcohol abuse.

What is vascular dementia?

There are three mandatory feature of the disease:

  • cognitive dysfunction – decreased intelligence;
  • emotional-volitional disorders;
  • asthenic syndrome – decreased resistance to physical and mental stress.
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The first complaint that makes the patient memory impairment. Lost the ability to remember new events. It is easier to recall and describe their childhood and youth, but notes the difficulty of Recalling names and titles, «fly out of my head» single words. Reduced ability to evaluate, plan and organize. Thinking becomes viscosity, patients prone to excessive detailing.
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Marked changes of character appear resentment, tearfulness, behavior is inappropriate, illogical. People can be frustrated to tears by the scene of the series, and after a few seconds the sadness is replaced with joy and a smile. Attention is narrowed, it is slow.

The core of the person, usually saved. Characterized by enhancing pre-existing traits to an absurd degree. So, frugality transformirovalsya in pushkinskoy avarice, suspiciousness – suspiciousness and anxiety. Possible delusions of small magnitude – of domestic theft, jealousy, etc.

The accession of neurological symptoms – a violation of articulation, change of voice, the deterioration in the act of swallowing, the appearance of specific facial expressions Mesopotamia. Appears specific gait – festinating or shuffling.
In connection with the peculiarities of blood supply of the brain the symptoms can then increase, then subjected to reverse development. In General dementia tend to progress over time, the condition of patients deteriorates, they increasingly need the help of loved ones.

Extent of vascular dementia

Depending on the autonomy of the patient there are three degrees of the disease:

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  • Easy dementia – saved criticism to his condition, the patient can live independently and not need assistance at home but are restricted in their professional activities.
  • Moderate – the person has difficulty in certain everyday situations: difficult in handling household appliances, telephone, door locks, etc., although generally capable of self-care and hygiene.
  • Heavy for a person needs constant care of relatives or professional carers, as it is unable to carry out hygiene procedures, eating, etc.
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    Treatment and prognosis

    Unfortunately, the consequences of ischemic processes in the brain is irreversible, that is, to cure the disease impossible. However, you can slow its progression, as long as possible to maintain the ability to self-care and patient independence. For this purpose drugs of several groups:

    • herbal remedies that increase adaptability to mental and physical stress – Siberian ginseng, Schizandra, ginseng, etc.
    • nootropics – Piracetam, Actovegin, Cerebrolysin, Cortexin;
    • b vitamins;
    • to improve neurotransmitter systems (chemical messages between nerve cells) – Rivastigmine, Galantamine, Memantine, etc.

    Of course, the necessary control of concomitant diseases – atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes etc. the Average life of a patient with vascular dementia is lower than in Alzheimer’s disease. However, the immediate cause of death as a rule, are accompanying somatic diseases – pneumonia, myocardial infarction, etc., For relatives of the patient in the first place is its adaptation to living conditions throughout the time of life – there is a need in the caregiver. The question of the dismissal or hiring of a nurse.