Vasodilator drugs for hypertension

Vasodilator drugs (vasodilators) are used in the treatment of hypertension. Their action is based on relaxation of the vessel wall, so that it expands and the pressure in the vessel is reduced. Find out what they are and when they are used.

What are they

Mechanism of action of the vessel, all are indirect vasodilators (calcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, etc.) and direct. When it comes to the direct vasodilators, are used only 4 major funds, as well as nitroglycerine and analogs. These drugs:

  • hydralazine;
  • nitroprusside sodium;
  • the diazoxide;
  • Minoxidil.

When prescribed for hypertension

These drugs are administered in severe hypertension when other drugs are powerless. In addition, they are used with a sharp increase in pressure as a quick help. It is not recommended to use them continuously at elevated pressure, so as:

  • drugs this group many side effects, such as headaches, tachycardia, fluid retention, etc.; in this context they are used in conjunction with other medications (beta-blockers and diuretics);
  • over time, develop tolerance and require increasing dosage of the drug;
  • these funds mainly to expand the small blood vessels.

Thus, these drugs for hypertension are used as a means of emergency and extremely rare. Consider each of them in detail.

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Hydralazine

This drug dilates the peripheral arterioles, causing increased heart rate. With prolonged use develops a tolerance, and receptors on vessel fail to respond to it. Separately not used because of low efficiency, but is part of the combined medicines for hypertension, such as Adelfan and. it is Not recommended to use this tool for long-term therapy. Patients in age and with kidney disease requires correction of the dose. Possible side effects:

  • increase heart rate;
  • swelling;
  • long-term use are observed autoimmune disorders;
  • neuralgia and peripheral nerve (for prevention it is recommended to drink a course of vitamins b);
  • disorders of the digestive system;
  • decreased libido, etc.
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Such an abundance of adverse reactions does not allow to use this tool for long-term therapy of the disease, in spite of its relatively low cost.
Сосудорасширяющие препараты при гипертонии

Nitroprusside sodium

Has a widening effect on arterioles and veins. Use intravenously. The drug takes effect within a minute (sometimes sooner) after injection. The effect is short-lived, but can be used in a critical situation. Possesses anticoagulant properties (does not form clots and thins the blood). The action is similar to nitroglycerin. After abrupt discontinuation of the drug develops withdrawal syndrome. Side effects:

  • gastrointestinal disorders;
  • damaging effect on the kidneys;
  • swelling and shortness of breath;
  • headaches and tinnitus;
  • mental disorders etc.

The drug is effective under certain conditions associated with rise in blood pressure, but it requires precise metering and constant pressure control.

The diazoxide

This tool is a derivative of diuretics, but most of these properties has not. Causes the development of edema and frequent palpitations. One of the side effects is an inhibitory effect on insulin production. It can be used for conditions accompanied by increased synthesis of insulin.
Other side effects:

  • can cause heart failure;
  • allergic reactions and rash;
  • headaches;
  • changes in the blood;
  • change of taste and tactile sensitivity.

Has a relaxing effect on smooth muscles of the uterus. If you use the drug in childbirth, the process will stop.

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Minoxidil

Is a direct vasodilator and acts primarily on arterioles. Causes increased heart rate and swelling. Has a protective effect on the kidneys. Effectively lowers blood pressure, but has a long list of adverse reactions. Because of this drug is rarely used for hypertension and is only used in conjunction with other agents (diuretics and beta-blockers). Among the adverse reactions often develop the following:

  • frequent palpitations and swelling;
  • steal syndrome of the heart muscle that can lead to heart attack;
  • inflammatory heart disease;
  • headaches;
  • problems with vision and hearing;
  • the change of blood parameters;
  • disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, etc.
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One of the side effects of this drug is excessive hair growth, making local form of this tool has been widely used in the treatment of alopecia. By increasing the levels of testosterone in women for its reception there may be development of male sexual characteristics (growth of body hair, rough voice, etc.). These symptoms disappear within a few months after drug withdrawal.

Each of these tools has serious side effects and should be used only for the indications and under the supervision of a doctor.