Vegetative-vascular dystonia: what is it?
Vegetative-vascular dystonia is a common pathological condition, especially among people quite youngish. It was because of her young women and men there are changes in blood pressure, headaches, aching chest pain, After examination, these patients are no serious diseases of the heart and blood vessels doctors usually don’t detect, and unpleasant symptoms continue torturing the sick. Look at what it is – a vascular dystonia.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia (VVD) has several names – neurocirculatory dystonia, autonomic dysfunction (dystonia of the heart). These names speak for themselves: the basis of this pathology is the disruption of the functioning of the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system, and the main target organs harmful are blood vessels and heart, although other organs are also affected, but the changes from their side are less pronounced.
What happens in VSD?
The main function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the regulation of activities of the internal organs. If the somatic division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for communication of the human body with the outside world (thanks to somatic nervous system a person sees, hears, feels, reacts to stimuli, etc.), the «vegetation» is responsible for the stability of the internal environment.
The structure of the ANS is quite complex: it consists of the vegetative nuclei, plexuses and nerve fibers through which impulses from the brain comes to internal organs. Depending on what state the person is (sleeping, awake, playing sports, nervous, etc.), the ANS signals the heart to beat faster or slower vessels to grow or shrink the intestine – to increase or decrease peristalsis, etc. That is, ANS always works, but its proper functioning is particularly necessary in stressful situations, under conditions of intense physical and mental stress, when a sudden change in the weather, when the body must quickly and adequately react to the changes.
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Harmful such as an adequate reaction times and no, the internal organs do not get the «right» signals, so the patient feel much worse. Hence meteosensitivity, and the occurrence of panic attacks, and number of other pathological conditions associated with impaired adaptation and neurological disorders.
Thus, poor health and other symptoms associated with a VSD usually have no relationship to organic lesions of internal organs (myocardial ischemia, inflammatory changes in the intestinal wall, etc.). The basis of pathology lies solely with the violation of innervation and, as a result of the functioning of the organs (although the combination of functional and organic pathology is also found). Therefore, patients with VSD should not be treated by a cardiologist or a gastroenterologist, a neurologist and psychiatrist.
How to recognize a VSD?
The signs of VSD can be very diverse – it all depends on which organ system was the most sensitive to disturbances of innervation (cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, etc.). However, most often neurocirculatory dystonia is manifested by a combination of several the following syndromes:
- Cardiovascular. Its main symptoms – pain and discomfort in the heart area (unrelated to physical exercise and neuershausen after taking cardiac medicines), changes in blood pressure, tachycardia or bradycardia, arrhythmia, various vascular reactions (hot flashes, «marbling» of the skin, chilliness, etc.).
- Hyperventilation. In this condition the person feels a lack of air, therefore, begins deeply and often breathe, causing the blood oversaturated with oxygen, appears dizziness, paresthesia and other conditions associated with hyperventilation of the lungs.
- Syndrome cerebrovascular disorders. Due to the dysregulation of vascular tone in the brain patients often suffer from headache, dizziness, noise in ears, often they occur fainting.
- Syndrome irritable bowel. The main symptoms – aching pain in the abdomen, unstable stool, frequent urge to defecate, bloating. In addition, there may be belching and heartburn.
- Syndrome disorders of thermoregulation. Evident causeless periodic fever and chills.
- Hyperhidrosis – sweating (most often in the feet and hands).
- Syndrome sexual disorders. In men is erectile dysfunction, among women – vaginismus, anorgasmia, libido, tend to be retained in full.
- Tsistalgii syndrome painful bladder (patients feel pain when emptying bladder and a frequent need to urinate, with no inflammatory changes in the urinary organs, doctors do not detect).
- Syndrome mental disorders. Symptoms – emotional lability, tearfulness, frequent panic attacks and fear, etc.
- Asthenic. Manifested by weakness, very fatigue, weather dependent, etc.
Thus, vegetative-vascular disorders can occur in different ways, mimicking many other diseases, so patients with signs of VSD are waiting for multilateral examination.
To what doctor to address?
The appearance of the above described symptoms should first consult a therapist or pediatrician (if the child got sick) and pass a comprehensive laboratory and instrumental examination, which will allow to exclude organic lesions of the internal organs. Plan diagnostic procedures depends on exactly what the syndrome is dominated by a certain patient. If there are complaints from the cardiovascular system, it is necessary to pass EKG and heart ultrasound. If there are problems with the digestive system – radiological and endoscopic diagnostic procedures. When the headaches and dizziness it is necessary to examine the blood vessels of the brain and make a CT (computed tomography).
Diagnosis and treatment most of VSD involved physicians, neurologists and psychotherapists. To confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of violations (vagotonia, sympathicotonia, etc.) doctors are conducting vegetative samples, exploring the brain.
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Treatment VSD is primarily to eliminate the causes of pathological changes. Quite often stress and banal fatigue, endocrine disorders, bad habits (alcohol and cigarettes), a neurological disease. Subsequent therapy depends on the dominant symptoms and General condition of the patient. Some people to feel better enough to change the lifestyle and exercise, while others require special drugs (acting on the autonomic nervous system, blood vessels, Central nervous system) and long-term psychotherapy.