Vegetative-vascular (neurocirculatory) dystonia: symptoms and effective treatment
Disease, occurring with a variety of symptoms, the manifestation of which depends on the activity of the autonomic part of the nervous system, is called vascular dystonia (VVD). Dystonia is a disorder of tone, or balance between the work of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system.
The nature of the disease
The vegetative (or Autonomous) nervous system is the brain and spinal cord and has two divisions – sympathetic and parasympathetic. Balanced work of both divisions, ensures homeostasis – self-regulation and stability of all systems and organs. Sinapticeski Department is responsible for promoting processes (increased heartbeat, breathing rate, increased vascular tone, increased blood pressure, etc.). The parasympathetic division, in contrast, contributes to the inhibition of the body functions.
In the absence of pathology of the teamwork of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system provides a stable condition of the body. When malfunction of one of the departments there is activation of one Department with the oppression of the other. So there is vegetative-vascular dystonia, or autonomic dysfunction (the name of the system, which is broken). Of pathology will depend on which division of the autonomic system prevails.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia (VSD) or neuro-circulatory, neurovascular dystonia (NDCs, unauthorized access) – a set of symptoms or syndrome, the main component of which is the change of vascular tone in organs and systems. This is the cause of diverse clinical manifestations, and explains the name of the disease.
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The reasons for the development of VSD
In children autonomic dysfunction can occur as a result of the following factors:
- intrauterine hypoxia of fetus;
- birth injuries;
- pathological conditions and diseases of the newborn period;
- in adolescence – hormonal changes in the body.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia in adults can be triggered by the following facts and situations:
- hereditary (genetic) predisposition (the presence of VSD with relatives);
- the presence of chronic somatic diseases;
- the presence of chronically occurring infections in the body;
- acute and chronic stress (psychological trauma);
- diseases of the Central nervous system;
- injuries of the skull and spinal column;
- abnormalities with the endocrine system;
- pathologies of the digestive tract;
- women – hormonal changes during pregnancy, menopause;
- chronic fatigue and sleep deprivation;
- sexual dysfunction;
- a constant intoxication of alcohol and nicotine.
Types of dystonia
For VSD characterized by the predominance of subjective feelings over the objective of the survey. Reason – in the absence of changes in the internal organs. However, the clinical manifestations are very striking and similar pattern of diseases of different systems and organs. All of this suggests a functional (reversible) changes in organs and systems. The predominance of symptoms distinguish the following types of dystonia:
Cerebral venous-vascular dystonia – a state of violation of the outflow of venous blood from the brain. The result is a stagnation of blood that can pass into the swelling. Characteristic symptoms of this disease – chronic «dull» headaches. The pain increases with physical exertion, coughing, screaming, sneezing. It is believed that this type of dystonia is caused by malfunction of the autonomic nervous system.
Symptoms of autonomic dysfunction
Vegetative-vascular dystonia of any type can combine with the same symptoms, but some manifestations of the disease are most characteristic of a particular type. In hypertensive disease is characterized by frequent rise in blood pressure up to 140/100 and above, as well as the characteristic features of hypertension:
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- palpitations (tachycardia);
- the feeling of heat along with cold extremities caused by a rush of blood to the head and neck;
- «marbling» of the skin color;
- the sudden jump in body temperature.
Functional hypertension due to increased vascular tone. Hypotensive type VVD is characterized by:
- persistent reduction in blood pressure 100/60.
- a slowing heart rate (bradycardia), sometimes alternating with tachycardia, arrhythmia with the «fading» of the heart;
- pre-existing conditions;
- fainting, especially when sudden change horizontal to vertical (orthostatic collapse);
- irritability and tearfulness;
- the development of depression and various phobias, panic attacks.
The weakening of vascular tone leads to functional hypotension (hypotension). For the mixed type characterized by the jump of AD and symptoms as hypertensive and hypotensive types of VSD. The mixed type occurs in unstable vascular tone.
For the cardiac type of VSD characteristic heart symptoms with pain in the heart area radiating («giving») to the left shoulder, jaw, left arm, shoulder and both hands. The character of the pain can be burning, sharp, cutting, pressing. Often the pain is vague localization across the chest. There are often arrhythmias, clearly perceived as «failures» in the work of the heart. For any type of dystonia may be typical of other symptoms:
- meteosensitivity (deterioration of health in the period of the change of weather conditions);
- various sleep disturbances – difficulty falling asleep or awakening, frequent awakenings during nighttime sleep, loss of sense of sleep, sleepiness at daytime and insomnia at night;
- shortness of breath, feeling short of breath;
- disorders of the digestive tract;
- violations in the urogenital sphere (frequent urination, problems in sexual life).
What is the danger of vegetative-vascular dystonia?
The main danger of VSD is the sudden emergence of attacks of the disease (called crises). Even harder, when the disease has krizova for – with frequent attacks. The consequences of serious injury after a fall. Krizova manifestations of ESP occur in two basic types and one mixed.
The diagnosis of VSD shall be made after a full examination and on the basis of typical complaints of the patient. Conducted the following studies and activities:
- consultations of doctors-specialists to exclude somatic and mental pathology;
- clinical and biochemical blood tests, urine tests;
- functional methods of diagnostics (ECG, ECHO, ABPM, Holter, EEG, ultrasound);
- x-ray studies (craniography, CT-scan and MRI of the brain, spinal cord).
How to treat autonomic dysfunction?
Effective treatment of VSD is possible only on the basis of non-pharmacological interventions aimed at the General health of the body:
- if necessary, treatment of the underlying disease;
- exception of stress;
- quitting Smoking, alcohol, energy drinks;
- a balanced healthy diet with a high content of potassium, vitamins, fiber;
- the observance of a day regimen, work and rest;
- moderate regular physical activity, sports are contraindicated;
- organization of active leisure.
Good effect in treatment give massage, physiotherapy, balneotherapy (bath), electrophoresis bromine-containing solution on a collar zone, aeroionotherapy, and acupuncture. At home you can conduct a contrast shower, the baths recommended by the doctor means. Effective is colorterapia – combination treatment with the change of climate and environment.
The indications for treatment of dystonia are assigned to drugs that should be taken in courses prescribed by the doctor:
- sedatives (Herb Extract Motherwort and Valerian, Novo-Passit, Persen);
- tranquilizers (Mebicar, Diazepam);
- nootropics (Nootropil, Phenotropil);
- correctors of cerebral circulation (Vinpocetine, Cinnarizine);
- proofreaders vegetative symptoms (Bellataminalum, Belloid);
- antidepressants (Koaksil, Azafen).
Army and VSD
Vegetative-vascular dystonia is not a contraindication for service in the army. However, the military-medical Commission can identify a deeper pathology, previously recognised as VSD. It does this by assigning a detailed survey for the purpose of issuing or exclusion of a more complex diagnosis.
This type of dystonia is not related to the VSD, and is extrapyramidal disorder, manifested by involuntary, uncontrollable movements of the facial muscles. Occurs most often as long-term complication of medication-antipsychotics.