Ventricular tachycardia: causes, symptoms, treatment

Ventricular tachycardia – rapid contractions of the ventricles (up to 200 beats/min). The phenomenon is paroxysmal (starts and ends abruptly), while maintaining a regular rhythm. The disease is considered the most severe arrhythmia. If you ignore the symptoms of disease and not in time to begin her treatment, this can lead to serious consequences. Regularly feel unwarranted heart palpitations? There is a reason to go to the doctor!

 

Acute ventricular tachycardia often occurs in myocardial infarction, in which there is death of heart tissue.

Желудочковая тахикардия: причины, симптомы, лечение

Pathology occurs in different ways. Often this complicates the staging of a physician diagnosis. Disease, given the characteristics of the flow is:

  • Paroxysmal unstable. Ventricular tachycardia is accompanied by an arrhythmia duration of less than 30 seconds. Such aggravation is virtually no impact on the health of the patient, but significantly increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation.
  • Paroxysmal sustained. The attack lasted just over 30 seconds. The doctor noted the violation of hemodynamics.
  • Chronic. Increased heart rhythms is observed constantly. Short bouts lead to gradual deterioration of the heart. Patients with this diagnosis should stand on the account at the cardiologist.
  • How dangerous is ventricular tachycardia?

    Ventricular tachycardia – a severe kind of disease is the main organ in our body. If the frequent contractions of the ventricles are sustainable, the heart eventually ceases to cope with stress – reduced blood pressure and developing heart failure. On the background of chronic arrhythmia breaks down the process of blood circulation in the body – the vital organs now fail in their «duties».

    If you do not start comprehensive treatment ventricular tachycardia the onset of the attack threatens to escalate into a myocardial infarction, which is experiencing not every patient. To get to his feet after a heart attack is much harder than to undergo preventive treatment.

    Tachycardia may be replaced by ventricular fibrillation, leading to death of the patient.

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    What causes ventricular tachycardia?

    Ventricular tachycardia develops in healthy people. Many patients (even young people under 40 years of age) today are on the account at experts. But most often, this pathology occurs in the background of serious abnormalities in the heart. Select one of the following:

    • ischemia of the heart (insufficient blood flow to the heart);
    • congestive heart failure;
    • surgery on the heart;
    • myocarditis (inflammation of heart tissues due to infections);
    • myocardial infarction;
    • genetic diseases (long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome);
    • overdose of drugs – antiarrhythmic, beta-blockers, glycosides;
    • congenital abnormalities of the heart;
    • the reduction of the body’s electrolytes – magnesium, potassium.

    Whatever the causes of the disease, ventricular tachycardia requires comprehensive treatment!

    What are the symptoms of ventricular tachycardia?

    Желудочковая тахикардия: причины, симптомы, лечение

    Unstable cardiac arrhythmia, often progresses with no symptoms. To «see» the pathology is possible only with constant medical supervision and regular passage of ECG. The reasons because of which the patient goes to a cardiologist, become more frequent palpitations, mild chest pain, fainting and nausea.

    Sustained tachycardia is characterized by more obvious symptoms:

    • the feeling of a «lump» in the throat;
    • frequent arrhythmia;
    • bouts of weakness and nausea;
    • panic attacks;
    • pallor of the skin.

    None of the marked symptoms cannot be ignored – it is a straight road on the operating table.

    Diagnosis of tachycardia of the ventricles

    If the patient goes to the doctor with alarming symptoms, the specialist assigns a number of diagnostic measures. It is necessary for an accurate diagnosis forms and stages of the disease. Ventricular tachycardia is diagnosed as:

  • Inspection. The doctor examines the skin, measures blood pressure and pulse, listening to heart rhythms.
  • General and biochemical blood analysis. You should set the level of cholesterol, minerals and red blood cells.
  • ECG. The study is carried out to identify pathological changes in the heart and determine the location of the affected area. If necessary, experts prescribe the patient a Holter monitoring – so you can find out the number of painful episodes and conditions of their occurrence.
  • Echo. Determination of the structure of the heart and detecting irregularities in the muscle contraction.
  • Computer and magnetic resonance tomography. Techniques to identify diseases of the heart, leading to the manifestation of arrhythmias.
  • Radionuclide techniques. The patient is administered a radiopharmaceutical special, which «highlights» the affected area of the heart.
  • Coronary angiography with ventriculography. The study aims to identify the narrowing of cardiac arteries by examining the cavity of the ventricles. In the process the identification of the most «dangerous» areas, which further can lead to fibrillation.
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    But veloergometry (special bike) or treadmill (a special treadmill) for suspected ventricular tachycardia is denied because physical exercise can be dangerous for the patient.

    For accurate diagnosis, the doctor may not prescribe the whole complex of diagnostic measures, often missing 2-3 tests to identify the cause of the disease.

    Treatment of tachycardia of the ventricles

    When ventricular tachycardia is detected, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive treatment. Tactics depend on the degree of development of the disease, the General health of the patient and existing contraindications.

    Any form of disease (stable or unstable) requires immediate treatment – even if the patient has implicit symptoms!

    Treatment of disease aims to:

    • therapy of the underlying pathology;
    • elimination of mechanisms of maintaining the arrhythmia;
    • prevention of subsequent attacks.

    At the time of exacerbation uchennyh rhythms the doctor prescribes the patient medication and treatment hardware:

  • Electropulse therapy. The disruption of the heart eliminates the influence of an electric current of a certain frequency.
  • Anti-arrhythmic drugs. Support normal heart rhythm. If the patient at the time of exacerbation noted normal pressure, the doctor prescribes intravenous lidocaine or procainamide. Then the cardiologist may prescribe amiodarone. Those drugs that helped the patient in the future are assigned for prevention.
  • Желудочковая тахикардия: причины, симптомы, лечение

    To do to avoid falling sick, the doctor prescribes the patient profilakticheskoe treatment:

  • Drug therapy. Is assigned when the patient’s condition is stable. Has a momentary effect and not always effective. The patient takes medicines – beta-blockers (weaken heart contractions and lower blood pressure), antiarrhythmic agents (maintain the normal rhythm of the heartbeat), calcium channel blockers (dilate blood vessels, lower blood pressure), fatty acids omega-3 (reduce cholesterol, reduce the risk of blood clots). Independently «choose» drugs is strictly prohibited – it makes a doctor!
  • Surgery. The practice implemented several effective techniques – radiofrequency ablation (the source of the disease is destroyed by a radio-frequency pulse) and the installation of a cardioverter-defibrillator (a device, normalizing heart rhythm).
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    The patient with a stable tachycardia will have a long treatment and constant medical observation. The main goal is to prevent the development of pathology, which leads eventually to a heart attack.

    Is it possible to prevent the disease?

    Ventricular tachycardia occurs for many reasons, the main of which is the wrong way of life. Never to get into the group risk is to protect themselves and «listen» to his condition. The rules are:

    • avoiding alcohol and Smoking;
    • balanced diet;
    • regular exercise;
    • monitoring of body weight;
    • the control pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar;
    • timely treatment of heart disease.

    If a patient has a hereditary ventricular tachycardia, the examination must pass all his relatives.