Ways temporary stop bleeding
Since prehistoric times man has established a direct link between overt bleeding and the occurrence of deterioration of health, loss of consciousness and death. Wound treatment is one of the oldest specializations of the doctor, before the division of medicine in surgery, therapy, and obstetrics. After the Millennium, the implementation of the rules of urgent care and timely stop bleeding in the prehospital save human life. How to act if disaster struck?
People are not accustomed to the sight of strong, especially arterial bleeding. Vybrazhivaet jet to a great height, and the man grows weaker by the second. The important thing to remember – we must act quickly and calmly. Therefore, we must firmly remember the ways that developed over a long time. But first, you need to consider the variety of hemorrhage, to learn to distinguish one species from another.
Types of bleeding
There are different types of bleeding and their numerous classifications. For example, there are late secondary hemorrhage, which starts after the development of infectious wound healing process. But this specific information is needed surgeons and completely useless for the common people who happened to be witnesses to the injury, or to the person with the bleeding, which in some cases, applying the techniques of self help that can save their lives. Consider those types and classification, which are of practical value.
The most important is the type of bleeding. There are external and internal bleeding. And if the outer is always evident in blood, as if she had not been poured out from the wound, internal bleeding always subtly, as manifested by a sharp deterioration of health. Most often, the development of internal bleeding is guilty of the following diseases:
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- Ulcers disease stomach and duodenal ulcers.
- Ulcerative colitis.
- Blunt abdominal trauma, chest.
- Malignant neoplasms, including of the stomach and intestines.
- Varicose veins of the esophagus when portal hypertension syndrome.
- Ovarian apoplexy or rupture of the cyst.
- Fracture of long bones, e.g., humerus or femur. If there has been trauma to the vessel, but the fracture is closed, the hematoma volume can be up to 1.5 liters or more, for example, if a hip fracture. Of course, correct this hemorrhage is considered an external process, as the blood flows into the soft tissue of the extremities, and not in the body cavity.
Because of the ability with bleeding in the body cavity in the prehospital setting is significantly restricted, the main goal is early delivery of the patient to the surgical hospital. External bleeding, in turn, are divided into:
- Blood. Is the most life-threatening. It is arterial hemorrhage must be stopped at all costs, until the pressure vessel in the wound improvised rags, not paying any attention to their sterility.
Remember: rapid loss of arterial blood collapse and phenomena of hemorrhagic shock develop in a matter of seconds. It is enough to know that an adult weighing 70 kg heart under normal pressure for one minute, pumping 5 liters of blood, that is the whole volume. Of course, with constant loss of blood pressure rapidly falls, and with it falls the release, so within a minute will be lost not all. But the consequences can be very severe.
Arterial bleeding is bubbling over a stream of red blood that the beat of the heart contractions may also be emitted to a height of over a meter.
- Venous bleeding. Is a completely opposite character type of hemorrhage: if arterial bleeding is «mountain stream», then venous is «quiet river»: dark red blood slowly flows from the wound and with a good compression of the frequent stops due to the formation of a clot. When slippage of the bandage may spontaneous loss of the clot and restart bleeding.
- Capillary bleeding. For life is not dangerous, despite the menacing appearance soaked with the blood of the wound. Each of us «experienced» this unpleasant phenomenon. It is typical to engage a large area of the skin if, for example, falling off a Bicycle on the dusty road and well to pinch myself.
How to recognize internal bleeding?
Internal bleeding is characterized by the appearance of signs such as:
- sudden weakness;
- ringing in the ears, «flies» before eyes;
- cold sweat;
- aprosutemeny pulse, and marked reduction of pressure, voiceless heart tones;
- compensatory tachycardia.
Further develops a collapse with loss of consciousness. A person need while lying on a stretcher immediately taken to the nearest surgical hospital. With arterial bleeding very quickly developed signs of collapse, and gushes blood.
How to stop the hemorrhaging?
The first aid for wounds and bleeding – this is not a lot of doctors. This knowledge should have everything. These methods temporary stop bleeding:
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- With arterial bleeding you need to get a tourniquet above the injured vessel. The role of the harness you can use a tie, suspenders, Trouser belt, shirt removed. In the military field, you can use a bunch of long grass, which is wrapped on the affected limb.
In order to properly use a tourniquet, you need a ring of fabric to get the «lever», pushing the stick and having a twist, rotating the stick. It will reliably block the blood flow. Otherwise, wet with blood hands is difficult to tie the knot, and it will be fragile. If the injured carotid artery, the neck harness it is impossible to impose. Understands every. Therefore, you need to press the jar and fill the wound with a clean cloth handy. If the affected artery to forearm, wrist, lower leg or the foot, you need to bend the arm at the elbow or knee to compress the vessels. To enhance the effect, it is possible to enclose the area of bend roller out of scrap rags.
It is very important to deliver the patient within two hours in the hospital, or in the extremities may begin irreversible necrotic changes due to compression and compression, which can lead to amputation. If the harness imposed in the winter, the period is reduced to half (while outdoors).
- Methods of arresting venous hemorrhage is less dramatic: nature allotted more time. You can use the harness, but the most competent medical aid can be rendered by applying a pressure bandage. It differs from the wiring harness that arterial blood flows into the limb, and therefore there is no risk of necrotic tissue damage. It is always necessary to remember the tourniquet!
- Capillary bleeding stop. If to impose on a wound a hemostatic sponge, it is a matter of minutes.
Thus, there is nothing difficult. First aid for the occurrence of bleeding is 80% of the skills not to get lost on the 10% of speed and accuracy and another 10% — from the ability to use improvised means. Therefore it is impossible to underestimate the presence of your home or travel kit, because the mere presence of the harness can save a life.