What is a minor stroke? Symptoms and treatment
Microstroke – this has arisen acutely (suddenly) circulatory disorders of the brain, signs of which disappear on the therapy in the first day from the beginning of the pathological process. In the modern classification (ICD 10) this disease there. It has the name pnmc and is a transient (temporary) disturbance in brain blood flow.
How is a mini stroke?
For the normal functioning of the brain needs constant blood supply to the right amount. When an obstruction of blood flow in cerebral arteries (due to thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque), in violation of their integrity (rupture), there is a lack of oxygen. The stroke oxygen starvation and accumulation of metabolic products in the brain tissue leads to damage (necrosis). When a transient (temporary) interruption of the blood supply of the medulla restored, and the destruction of cells occurs. It must be remembered that this condition requires immediate treatment. If the treatment is provided later, may develop a stroke.
The causes of mini stroke
Significant hypoxia (oxygen starvation) leads to vascular pathology. The main causes of stroke are the following:
- Chronic arterial hypertension. Elevated numbers of blood pressure leads to hypoxia, regardless of the causes of hypertension. In symptomatic hypertension (endocrine, etc.), as well as with hypertension, the strain on the blood vessels of the brain increases. This leads to the destruction of the vessel wall (hemorrhagic variant of the disease).
- Atherosclerotic disorders. The gradual overlapping of the cerebral vessel in the result of atherogenesis or a complete cessation of the blood supply in the separation of platelets lead to hypoxia of the brain without damage of the arteries (ischemic variant of the disease).
- Abnormal heart rhythm. With adequate patency of the vascular bed and maintaining its integrity, oxygen starvation occurs when low cardiac output (when ventricular flutter etc.).
- Acute myocardial infarction. In this case, hypoxia of the brain occurs due to a decrease in myocardial contractility.
There are factors that increase the risk of stroke. These include:
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- Age indicators. The probability of stroke is increased when the man is 35 years. In women, the disease risk increases after 45 years.
- Weight. Obesity caused by overeating, physical inactivity, hormonal disorders (diabetes, etc.) and other causes, leads to disruption of the ratio of different fractions of lipoproteins in the blood. This provokes a minor stroke.
- A decrease in physical activity. It can be a sign geodinamicheskogo lifestyle, permanent sedentary office work or be caused by a temporary limitation (on the background of injuries, etc.). Violation of blood circulation in this case triggers the development of mini-strokes.
- The dependence on harmful habits (alcoholism, tobacco Smoking).
- Endocrine disorders. Hormonal changes lead to deterioration of blood supply of the brain.
- The presence of weather sensitivity. Response to changing barometric pressure is a symptom of dystonia that can cause oxygen deprivation.
- Physical overload. Excessive loads leads to an increase of fitness, and the malfunction of protective systems of the body.
- Chronic psycho-emotional effects of high-intensity (stress). There are hormonal changes and exhaustion of adaptive mechanisms.
Symptoms of minor stroke
The diagnosis of stroke may be confirmed only after the disappearance of symptoms during the day from its beginning. If the damage observed in the vessel of large diameter, and the consequences of breach could not be compensated during this period, a stroke occurs. For timely initiation of treatment need to know how to determine mini-strokes at home. The main symptoms are:
- Headaches. They can be of different intensity and localization. The degree of cerebral disorders from the severity of pain does not depend.
- Violation of coordination of movements. This may manifest as instability of gait (until the fall), inability to drink water, etc.
- Hypersensitivity to stimuli (light, sound).
- The reduction or complete lack of sensitivity on the face, upper and lower extremities. They can occur on one side (left or right) or occupy both hands and feet.
- The condition of General weakness, lethargy. People find it difficult to answer a simple essay question, answers in monosyllables or with a delay.
- Loss of consciousness. It may be short-lived.
- Reduced vision. The patient reported vague objects, is difficult to read the text.
- Disorders of speech (how speech sounds and understanding them).
For the proper treatment of the patient is required to remember how to find out if an episode of impaired blood supply to the brain is reversible or it led to the disruption of the structure of cerebral tissue.
The treatment of mini stroke
Most often, the diagnosis of «stroke» (acute violation of cerebral circulation), in the first 24 hours of illness can not be ruled out. Knowing that in 35% of cases the disease leads to death of the patient, in the presence of 3 or more clinical symptoms therapy is conducted according to the rules of management of patient with stroke. This tactic is not excessive, and increases the chance of recovery of the patient. You need to start treatment as early as possible. The most effectively start of therapy after 3 – 6 hours from the onset of cerebral vascularity.
What you need to do before the arrival of the ambulance?
If you suspect a stroke you must:
- to call an ambulance;
- to lay the patient in a position with a small rise of the head end of the body;
- if vomiting occurs it is necessary to turn the patient’s head to one side and ensure that vomit does not hit in the respiratory tract;
- to facilitate breathing by loosening the tie, unbuttoning the collar clothes, untying the belt;
- to measure blood pressure; if observed its raising to take antihypertensives short-acting (Hood), it is better to dissolve under the tongue to avoid podergivani when swallowing.
What drugs are used for mini-strokes?
The goal of treatment of minor stroke is restoration of blood supply, reduction of the consequences of its breach and the fight against the causes of mini-strokes. For this purpose, the following groups of drugs (in various combinations):
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- thrombolytic preparations;
- disaggregative drugs (Aspirin, etc.);
- westrope funds (Chimes);
- antihypertensive drugs (ACE inhibitors, etc.);
- cerebroprotector – these include nootropics, inhibiting glutamate, antioxidant drugs;
- low molecular weight dextrans.