What is the unit for measuring pressure?
Arterial (blood) pressure is one of the most important indicators of the condition of the human body. The norm limits 110/70 – 130/90. The decrease in pressure is called hypotension, increase – hypertension. For exact definitions of the indicators use special devices.
What is the apparatus that determines blood pressure?
Blood pressure (BP) in humans is measured by the device, which the official medicine is called a sphygmomanometer (from the Greek words «stigmas» – pulse, «Manos» – loose, rare, «metreo» – dimension). Currently, this term is used rarely even in the medical community. A device for measuring blood pressure in medicine, Metrology and in common parlance often called a tonometer. The main elements of the apparatus:
- gauge with a dial or electronic monitor;
- cuff for attaching to the shoulder or hip, is a pneumatic chamber, placed in a fabric «sleeve» with locking elements (Velcro or metal hooks and loops);
- rubber or plastic bulb for pumping air into the cuff, having an adjustable valve bleed air;
- rubber or plastic tubing to supply air into the cuff, the blower and pressure gauge.
Types of blood pressure monitors
Sequence of actions when measuring blood pressure manual blood pressure cuff
The patient should empty the bladder, do not eat, smoke, to adopt a tonic and stimulating drink before the procedure, you should sit quietly for 5 – 7 minutes. After a short adaptation proceed directly to the measurement of blood pressure. In the middle of the shoulder of the patient impose the cuff so that it was located at 3 to 4 cm above the elbow; tube air supply is placed on the front surface of the shoulder in the middle, above the elbow bend. The gauge is placed on a heart level, attach it to the cuff.
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The stethoscope head is applied to the cubital fossa of the patient. Close the air valve and using a pear pump air into the pneumatic chamber of the cuff. The numbers on the scale of the gauge should be above projections. Gradually open the valve and gradually bleed air from the cuff, listening to the sounds in the stethoscope. Notice the appearance of pulsating tones and their disappearance, looking at the scale of the tonometer. The division of the scale on which is marked an arrow:
- the appearance of the tones corresponds to the upper pressure (systolic);
- their disappearance corresponds to the lower (diastolic).
After attenuation of the sound valve open, the air is fully vented, deflating it out of the pneumatic chambers. Then remove the cuff from the shoulder of the patient. If necessary, measure blood pressure in the thigh cuff to take larger than normal, and reinforce it over a knee. Rubber tubes have higher knee bend, the stethoscope is applied to the popliteal fossa. In the rest of the technique is the same. Note that when measuring blood pressure on the thigh of the indicators will be 10 – 15 mm Hg higher than it would be under the same conditions on the brachial artery.
Digital cameras: the technique of measuring blood pressure
Semiautomatic and automatic devices for measuring blood pressure convenient to use. They say performance is not only pressure but also pulse rate, and also indicate the presence of arrhythmia. When the measurement of blood pressure using semi-automatic blood pressure monitor cuff application technique and air injection using pear is the same as using a mechanical apparatus. After the start of venting we need to wait for the stable indicators in the monitor.
Automatic blood pressure monitor pumps himself and bleeds the air showing measurement data on the monitor after the procedure. «Kapulsky» automatic blood pressure monitor fastened to your wrist so that the hand was relaxed, and the wrist was placed at the level of the heart. The disadvantage of digital blood pressure monitors are considered to be errors in their work associated with frequent use, malfunctions during discharge of a battery that is a high sensitivity electronic system devices.
People with frequent fluctuations of pressure, especially high blood pressure, it is better to have a blood pressure cuff at home to monitor the performance of the heart and blood vessels regularly. The choice of device is already for by the patient.
The accuracy of the readings
New devices for measuring pressure have a factory calibration guaranteeing the veracity of their testimonies, with the obligatory stamp in the passport of the device. However, the term metrological verification limited. In medical institutions all lamps must be filed annually checked metrological. Homemade devices are also preferably subjected to testing in specialized service, to ensure the reliability of the device and the accuracy of any statements issued.
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