What is the unit for measuring pressure?

Arterial (blood) pressure is one of the most important indicators of the condition of the human body. The norm limits 110/70 – 130/90. The decrease in pressure is called hypotension, increase – hypertension. For exact definitions of the indicators use special devices.

What is the apparatus that determines blood pressure?

Blood pressure (BP) in humans is measured by the device, which the official medicine is called a sphygmomanometer (from the Greek words «stigmas» – pulse, «Manos» – loose, rare, «metreo» – dimension). Currently, this term is used rarely even in the medical community. A device for measuring blood pressure in medicine, Metrology and in common parlance often called a tonometer. The main elements of the apparatus:

  • gauge with a dial or electronic monitor;
  • cuff for attaching to the shoulder or hip, is a pneumatic chamber, placed in a fabric «sleeve» with locking elements (Velcro or metal hooks and loops);
  • rubber or plastic bulb for pumping air into the cuff, having an adjustable valve bleed air;
  • rubber or plastic tubing to supply air into the cuff, the blower and pressure gauge.

Types of blood pressure monitors

  • The first sphygmomanometers were mercury, which had a scale with a glass column containing mercury. They now almost never use, but traditionally blood pressure is recorded in millimeters of mercury.
  • The tonometer has a mechanical diaphragm pressure gauge with scale. Measurement of blood pressure using mercury or mechanical tonometer is the most accurate indicators. It uses a membrane of the stethoscope for listening to heart sounds on the brachial or femoral artery. The definition of the result in the measurement of the mechanical or mercury sphygmomanometer is the man who hears the surge and record data.
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    Как называется прибор для измерения давления?

  • Digital or electronic blood pressure monitors. There are two types: automatic and semi-automatic. Automatic blood pressure monitor he pumps and pulls the air in a semi-automatic for this purpose the rubber bulb, like a mechanical tonometer. Digital devices determine the parameters automatically, registering the moments of the differential pressure within an air chamber of the cuff. Automatically devices are available in two versions: with a large cuff to measure blood pressure on the shoulder and with a small cuff on the wrist (so-called pulse blood pressure).
  • Sequence of actions when measuring blood pressure manual blood pressure cuff

    The patient should empty the bladder, do not eat, smoke, to adopt a tonic and stimulating drink before the procedure, you should sit quietly for 5 – 7 minutes. After a short adaptation proceed directly to the measurement of blood pressure. In the middle of the shoulder of the patient impose the cuff so that it was located at 3 to 4 cm above the elbow; tube air supply is placed on the front surface of the shoulder in the middle, above the elbow bend. The gauge is placed on a heart level, attach it to the cuff.

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    The stethoscope head is applied to the cubital fossa of the patient. Close the air valve and using a pear pump air into the pneumatic chamber of the cuff. The numbers on the scale of the gauge should be above projections. Gradually open the valve and gradually bleed air from the cuff, listening to the sounds in the stethoscope. Notice the appearance of pulsating tones and their disappearance, looking at the scale of the tonometer. The division of the scale on which is marked an arrow:

    • the appearance of the tones corresponds to the upper pressure (systolic);
    • their disappearance corresponds to the lower (diastolic).
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    Как называется прибор для измерения давления?
    After attenuation of the sound valve open, the air is fully vented, deflating it out of the pneumatic chambers. Then remove the cuff from the shoulder of the patient. If necessary, measure blood pressure in the thigh cuff to take larger than normal, and reinforce it over a knee. Rubber tubes have higher knee bend, the stethoscope is applied to the popliteal fossa. In the rest of the technique is the same. Note that when measuring blood pressure on the thigh of the indicators will be 10 – 15 mm Hg higher than it would be under the same conditions on the brachial artery.

    Digital cameras: the technique of measuring blood pressure

    Semiautomatic and automatic devices for measuring blood pressure convenient to use. They say performance is not only pressure but also pulse rate, and also indicate the presence of arrhythmia. When the measurement of blood pressure using semi-automatic blood pressure monitor cuff application technique and air injection using pear is the same as using a mechanical apparatus. After the start of venting we need to wait for the stable indicators in the monitor.

    Automatic blood pressure monitor pumps himself and bleeds the air showing measurement data on the monitor after the procedure. «Kapulsky» automatic blood pressure monitor fastened to your wrist so that the hand was relaxed, and the wrist was placed at the level of the heart. The disadvantage of digital blood pressure monitors are considered to be errors in their work associated with frequent use, malfunctions during discharge of a battery that is a high sensitivity electronic system devices.

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    People with frequent fluctuations of pressure, especially high blood pressure, it is better to have a blood pressure cuff at home to monitor the performance of the heart and blood vessels regularly. The choice of device is already for by the patient.

    The accuracy of the readings

    New devices for measuring pressure have a factory calibration guaranteeing the veracity of their testimonies, with the obligatory stamp in the passport of the device. However, the term metrological verification limited. In medical institutions all lamps must be filed annually checked metrological. Homemade devices are also preferably subjected to testing in specialized service, to ensure the reliability of the device and the accuracy of any statements issued.

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