What to do if nose bleeding?
Nosebleeds can be hard enough to scare the man. Fortunately, in most patients the blood out of his nose not due to serious diseases, and it is easy to stop.
Depending on the source, nosebleeds are divided into two groups:
- Bleeding from the anterior part of the nose. As a rule, they are easy to stop at home.
- Bleeding from the back of the nasal cavity – are much rarer. They usually have a more severe character, the treatment often requires treatment in the hospital to the audiologist.
Nosebleeds often develop in the winter. They can appear at any age but are more common in children 2 to 10 years and adults aged 50 to 80 years.
Causes of nasal bleeding
Most often the reason that the human nose was bleeding is external (punch in the face, fall) or internal (picking your nose, repeated irritation from a cold) injury. Less development of bleeding may contribute to the violation of the coagulation of blood, anticoagulants (Warfarin) or antiplatelet agents (Aspirin, Plavix). Also, the blood clotting can affect liver disease. Rare causes of bleeding may be abnormal blood vessels or tumors in the cavity of the nasopharynx. The appearance of blood from the nose also contributes to high blood pressure, but it is rarely an independent cause.
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Symptoms of nasal bleeding
Most often bleeding is from one nostril. If the blood flows continuously and heavily, it can flow through the nasopharynx into the other nostril. Blood can even get into the throat and stomach, causing hemoptysis or vomiting of blood. Signs of massive blood loss are dizziness, confusion, fainting. Fortunately, with nosebleeds severe blood loss is very rare. If there is blood from other parts of the body – for example, from the gums when brushing your teeth – it can talk about the clotting disorders that can be a symptom of more serious diseases.
Examination with nosebleeds
In the presence of epistaxis doctor examines a patient in order to identify the cause. You need to tell him all the information about other, existing symptoms and the resulting injuries. Unfortunately, there is no single method of examination by which you can determine the cause of bleeding from the nose. To establish an accurate diagnosis, doctors often use:
- General analysis of blood.
- Nasal endoscopy – examination of the nasal cavity with a special instrument (endoscope).
- The definition of indicators of blood coagulation.
- Computed tomography of the nose.
- X-ray of nose and face.
Before examination, the doctor may introduce into the nostrils of the medicine on a cotton ball that numb the mucous membranes and constrict blood vessels in this area. It also reduces swelling and allows you to better examine the internal structure of the nose.
What to do in the home for nosebleed?
With a small nosebleed can be managed successfully at home. Most people with the flu or inflammation of the paranasal sinuses blowing my nose, and notice in the contents of the handkerchief up some blood. In order to avoid worsening of bleeding, in most cases it is enough to blow your nose hard not to sneeze and not to pick your nose. To stop a nosebleed, you should:
- Stay calm.
- Sit upright.
- Tilt your head forward. Its tilting back will cause the man is just going to swallow the blood.
- Pinch the nostrils with two fingers for 10 minutes.
- Spit out any blood that got into his mouth. Its ingestion may result in vomiting.
When the bleeding has stopped:
- You need to try to prevent any irritation of the nasal mucosa during the day.
- Ice packs do not help.
- Re-development of epistaxis is promoted by exposure to dry air. Therefore it is better to use in home humidifiers.
Medical treatment of epistaxis
When bleeding from the front of the nose:
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- Stopped the bleeding may not need any treatment. Often the body forms a clot at the bleeding site.
- If the source of bleeding is easily visible from the vessel, the doctor may cauterize it using a chemical called silver nitrate.
- In more complex situations to stop bleeding may require nasal packing. With this purpose, can be used gauze or synthetic sponge, expanding when wet.
- The majority of patients with anterior nasal packing may be allowed to go home. As a rule, tampons remain within 1 – 3 days
If the back bleeding:
- If bleeding from the back of the nose did not stop on their own, the person needs hospitalization in a hospital as there is a need for tamponade. There are different types of tamponade, most commonly used balloon.
- Unlike the front tamponade, the back – very inconvenient, therefore, sometimes requires the appointment of painkillers and sedatives.
- Tampons left in place for 2 – 3 days. If using them fails to stop the bleeding, surgical treatment.
Most people after stopping the bleeding can be released. If they had tamponade of the nose, do not attempt to remove the tampons. At the agreed time should visit a doctor who will take swabs from the nose. If possible, you need to refrain from taking medicines that affect blood clotting. These include Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.