Why bleeding from nose: causes
Blood on pillow in the morning or sudden nosebleeds a day for no apparent reason frighten not only the person but also others. Isolated bleeding from the nose in most cases do not require special treatment. However their recurrence or massive hemorrhage point to abnormalities in the human body.
Causes of bleeding from the nose
The blood may come from nose for quite harmless reasons. In these cases, usually a single, there is a slight discharge of blood from the nasal passages, quickly eliminate without qualified medical assistance. However, sometimes nosebleeds indicate the presence of internal pathology, and to prevent further cases is necessary to eliminate the causative pathology.
Why is there nose bleeding: external factors
- Injuries of the nose
Bleeding provoked by trauma to the nose, often occur in athletes (football players, wrestlers) and children. Babies are quite fragile vascular wall, so even scratching the nose or excessive activity can trigger the rupture of the vessel and an extravasation of blood. Besides small children because of their constant desire to shove anything anywhere often put their nose small toys. Design details and mosaic traumatize delicate nasal mucosa.
- Climatic conditions
Dry air and high ambient temperature — a common causes of nasal bleeding. Often people after their holidays in hot countries celebrate the re-epistaxis in the morning, even some time after arrival home. Heat stroke provoked by prolonged sun exposure or being in the bath/sauna, sometimes causes profuse epistaxis. Cold air and sudden barometric changes cause the spasm of peripheral vessels and increased pressure in them: nasal bleeding susceptible climbers, vacationers at ski resorts, pilots and airline passengers, and divers.
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- Abnormal structure of nasal passages
A deviated septum, as a result of a congenital defect or previous fractures and surgical interventions, and a persistent dilation of nasal blood vessels triggers a condition when a person has bleeding from the nose.
More serious causes of bleeding nose
Chronic fatigue and frequent fatigue — a consequence of modern pace of life. Stress, heavy workload and heavy training program is often combined with a lack of fresh air. These factors can trigger nosebleeds in an adult and a small child.
- Colds and inflammation of the structures of the nose
Increased nasal bleeding is observed in the cold. Increased vascular permeability and edema of the mucosa is characteristic for viral infections (SARS, influenza), allergic rhinitis and chronic sinusitis. Blood when sneezing, strong cough comes with a large amount of mucus or pus.
Vitamin C is responsible for the elasticity of vascular walls. Its deficiency due to malnutrition and recurrent colds — the main cause of nasal bleeding vessels.
It is known that alcohol initially dilates blood vessels, including those located in the nose, and then has a vasoconstrictor effect. The blood from the nasal passages can go as during the reception of large doses of alcohol and during the hangover.
- Inhalation of cocaine
The drug provokes a pronounced dryness of the nasal mucosa, and even minimal touching of the nose will expire blood.
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Such factors cause bleeding from the nasal passages in the morning, at night and during the day. Disease causing nosebleeds:
- nasopharyngeal carcinoma, nasal polyps;
- vegetative-vascular dystonia;
- hormonal changes in girls in puberty, before menstruation, pregnant women and patients with pheochromocytoma — cancer of the adrenal glands;
- blood diseases — anemia, leukemia;
- pathologically reduced blood clotting deficiency vitamin K, hemophilia, hepatitis and cirrhosis;
- long-term use of NSAID drugs (Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac etc.), and anticoagulants;
- hemorrhagic diathesis, allergic conditions.
The above diseases can cause recurrent nosebleeds.
The types of nasal bleeding
The vast majority of nasal bleeding caused by a rupture of capillaries in the anterior part of the nasal passages area of Kisselbach. The blood loss is minimal (usually a few drops) and can be easily removed at home without medical assistance. More dangerous bleeding from vessels located in the posterior portions of the nasal passages: it is more significant in terms of blood loss, the blood flow into the esophagus and throat, and external blood loss seems small. Ingestion of blood provokes vomiting red/brown color. When tilting the head to the chest, the blood rushing stream. Nosebleeds are distinguished by the magnitude of blood loss:
- minor — a few ml;
- moderate — less than 200 ml;
- massive — less than 300 ml;
- profuse — the volume of blood loss greater than 500 ml.
- To reassure the patient.
- The sitting position with a slightly tilted head. Go and reject your head back is contraindicated! It will not stop the bleeding, and will lead to the ingestion of blood.
- Loosen collar, indoors to open window for fresh air.
- Breath deep. Inhale through the nose, exhale through your mouth.
- On the nose the cold: ice, ice cream, wet towel. To the feet a hot water bottle for blood flow to the extremities.
- You can get any nose drops with vasoconstrictor action, Naphazoline, Otrivin, Galazolin.
- Introduction to the bleeding nostril with a cotton swab liberally soaked in hydrogen peroxide (drug concentration: 3%). First aid kit with the drug can find in any store, pharmacy, motorists. It is desirable to compress the nostrils with your fingers.
- If a strong bleeding can receive up to 2 tsp of calcium chloride at a concentration of 5 – 10%, two tablets of Menadione. Vasoconstrictor action has salt water (1 – 2 tsp).
- With the failure of these measures, when bleeding, do not stop for 20 min or massive hemorrhage with the advent of fainting — call an ambulance.
Why have a nosebleed, can be determined only by a doctor after diagnostic tests. To prevent relapse, often enough taking a course of drugs that enhance the elasticity of blood vessels — vitamin C Askorutin. An important factor in preventing nasal bleeding is nutrition, rich in vitamins.
With frequent bleeding from the nose is often carried out minitrampoline procedure cauterization of blood vessels with silver nitrate, dairy/trichloroacetic acid. According to testimony carried cryosurgery, laser, electrocautery, in severe cases, surgical ligation of the bleeding vessel. However, the primary goal of the physician identify the causative pathology and its proper treatment. Only this can eliminate, and in severe cases to minimize the recurrence of nasal bleeding.