Why blood pressure is unstable? Then high, then low, causes
Blood pressure provides the flow of blood in the bloodstream. Its normal value varies widely. Abrupt changes in this indicator over 30 mm Hg. article for a short period of time can develop due to exposure to physiological or pathological reasons and cause significant discomfort.
The mechanism of formation
The pressure in the arteries is a summation of the force with which blood presses against the walls of blood vessels and the elasticity of their walls, preventing excessive stretching. It is expressed in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg. calendar). Isolated systolic (occurs during contraction of the heart) and diastolic (occurs during relaxation of the heart muscles and enlargement of its cavities) blood pressure.
The normal value of this indicator for each person is individual and varies in the range of 90 – 140 mm Hg. art. for systolic and 60 to 90 mm Hg. article for diastolic blood pressure. During the day the normal rate varies in relatively narrow limits, not more than 10 to 15 mm Hg. article formation Mechanism has several components, which include:
- Cardiac output – volume of blood ejected from the ventricles into the bloodstream. It depends on the amplitude of the force of systole (contraction of the cardiac muscle), as well as the frequency.
- The arterial vascular tone is regulated by smooth muscles that make up the middle layer of the wall. The raising tone the diameter of the arteries decreases, which leads to hypertension.
- The blood volume has a direct impact on the pressure level: the higher the volume of blood the higher rate of hypertension (elevated pressure), and Vice versa, hypotension (lower blood pressure).
Changing any of the mechanisms of formation for a short period of time can lead to extreme hypertension or hypotension.
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Why blood pressure is unstable?
Sudden pressure at which it is high, then low are the result of exposure to a variety of reasons. Distinguish physiological causes that can lead to small changes of level during the day, and pathological factors, at which significant changes can occur systematically.
The body is constantly reacting to changes in the environment of various physiological reactions. Reactions are provided by the functional activity of the sense organs, the nervous and endocrine systems. There are several factors that contribute to the dramatic change in blood pressure (usually cause it to increase). These include:
- Excessive emotional stress in the form of fear, of pronounced stress, which increases the activity of the sympathoadrenal system increases the level of adrenaline, which increases heart rate and narrows the bloodstream.
- Intense exercise that increase the need of striated muscle of oxygen and nutrients – to ensure their income sufficiently increases the speed of blood flow in the vessels, their tone and frequency of contractions of the heart.
Also physiological changes of vascular tone is a weather-sensitive person, in which changes in atmospheric pressure affect the state of the vascular tone and heart rate.
Sharp changes of arterial vascular tone, frequency and strength of cardiac contractions, which are developed systematically in various pathological factors, which include:
- Vegetative-vascular dystonia – a common cause of surges associated with periodic changes in the regulatory influence of the autonomic part of the nervous system on the heart and blood vessels.
- Cardiac disease in which disrupted the rhythm and frequency of its contractions (arrhythmia).
- Hyperthyroidism – thyroid disease, accompanied by increased functional activity and hormone levels (thyroxine and triiodothyronine).
- Pathology of the adrenal glands and kidneys, which are major regulators of arterial vascular tone and frequency of contractions of the heart (hormone-producing malignant or benign tumors, atherosclerosis of the kidney, the syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga).
- Coarctation of the aorta is a malformation in which is formed a phase of pronounced contraction, exerting a reflex influence on the periodical changes in the blood pressure level.
- Osteochondrosis of the cervical or thoracic spine – compression motor roots of the spinal cord, which contain autonomic fibers that regulate the functional activity of the heart and blood vessels.
Also a sharp jump in blood pressure that develops mainly at night could indicate apnea syndrome (violation of the process of external respiration during sleep).
Diagnosis and treatment
Objective diagnosis of surges of blood pressure is conducted to determine the primary pathological factor that provokes this condition. For this purpose, various instrumental techniques (CT, ultrasound) and laboratory (determination of hormone levels in the blood) research. After the diagnosis and determine the causes of spikes assigned to an appropriate treatment aimed at eliminating their impact.
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Jumps in blood pressure when their systematic development require objective diagnostic reasons and appropriate treatment, as over time they can lead to the development of severe pathology of the cardiovascular system, including hypertension.