Why lowered the average volume of red blood cells?

Red blood cells – blood cells that are responsive to any changes of homeostasis. The result varies constantly, not only their number but also the volume. Therefore, determine the overall rate, the ratio of which to the number of examined red blood cells is the average volume of erythrocyte (MCV or red blood cell index). This is one of the main indicators of clinical analysis, it allows you to determine the type of anemia, to diagnose heavy metal poisoning or congenital abnormalities of hemoglobin synthesis.

Erythrocyte index measured in femtolitre or micrometer cubed. For calculation used the formula: the ratio of volume of erythrocytes to the number of them. MCV is calculated automatically. Blood cells different in size and scope, therefore, for the diagnosis of blood diseases to determine the average cell volume. In diseases associated with changes in shape of the erythrocyte, the indicator unreliable.

Indicator unstable, with age, it varies. Newborns – 112 FL. After a year the child corpuscular volume is reduced to 77 – 79 FL. In adults the normal range for MCV is 80 – 100 FL. Change the value of the above norm is called macrocytosis below – microcytosis. Normocytes – average volume of erythrocytes within the age variable.

Why MCV is reduced?

One of the reasons for the decrease of volume of formed elements of blood – electrolyte imbalance. The increase of sodium ions leads to hypertonic dehydration is the main cause dehydration. Lack of fluids reduces the volume of the cell cytoplasm. The volume of the erythrocyte is reduced in the following diseases:

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  • Hemoglobinopathies – impaired formation of hemoglobin.
  • Violation of protein metabolism – lack of protein causes defects in the structure of red blood cells.
  • Congenital abnormalities – thalassemia.
  • Lead poisoning.
  • Alcoholic intoxication.

Indicator plays an important role in the diagnosis of hematological diseases. Reduction of the erythrocyte leads to the development of microcytic anemia. There are several types of such diseases.

Thalassemia is a congenital form of mikrosferocitoza

The disease is caused by a congenital disorder of the synthesis of the hemoglobin molecule. The defective structure of the erythrocyte is characterized by the decrease of volume. As a result, he is unable to perform its main function – oxygen transport. Defective erythrocytes undergo disintegration (hemolysis).

Sideroblastic anemia

Violation of synthesis of hemoglobin as a result of shortage of proportional and insufficient absorption of vitamin B6 in the gut. The result is the formation of abnormal erythroblasts. Under the microscope they are visually defined as abnormal cells with inclusions of iron in the cytoplasm. Defective erythrocytes are reduced in size.

Possible massive hemolysis with a critical lowering of elements. The condition requires emergency medical care.

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Iron deficiency anemia

Inadequate intake and impaired absorption of iron leads to impaired formation of hemoglobin. As a result, the volume of the erythrocyte is reduced, but their number is normal. Iron deficiency anemia have a benign course. Treatment consists of parenteral administration of iron preparations.

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Indications for the analysis of MCV

Determination of the volume of red blood cells is included in the standard tests. The blood taken from the finger or vein, preferably on an empty stomach. Assigned for the following violations:

  • when electrolyte disturbance;
  • in the differential diagnosis in Hematology;
  • in diseases of the metabolism;
  • in chronic endocrine diseases.

For this indicator, it is possible to determine the type of dehydration. Lowering the volume of red blood cells indicates a decrease of fluid in tissues by increasing the concentration of potassium ions in the blood.

Decoding results

Analysis of the MCV is in the clinic, inpatient units or in laboratories. Based on the data, the doctor makes a conclusion about the state of the hematopoietic system, the degree and type of dehydration of the patient. For questionable results, re-assign the study. If the analysis is performed automatically, the results are more accurate. Normal figures indicate anemia in the following diseases:

  • bleeding;
  • when liver failure;
  • when hemolysis;
  • in the pathology of the thyroid gland.

Macrocytic indices indicate anemia caused by deficiency of vitamins b and malignant tumors, endogenous intoxication and myxedema. A deviation from the norm happens in smokers and women taking oral contraceptives. The correct analysis depends on the disease diagnosis and choice of treatment regimen. The second study is necessary for control and adjustment of therapy.