Children with hearing impairment: causes, classification and prevention
What you need to know about children with hearing impairment?
Hearing for man is the means of perception of the world, filled with different sounds: the voices and laughter of people, the singing birds, spring thaw or the autumn rustle of fallen leaves. It would seem such a simple and iconic things, but unfortunately they are not available to all.
Children with hearing impairment – a special group of society, as they can’t fully communicate with the external environment. Hearing loss in children – one of a kind physical deviation leads to a decrease of intellectual and mental capabilities of the baby.
Hearing loss in children
Hearing loss – the loss of the human body to identify the range of frequencies and analyze the sounds of low levels. Based on this, determine congenital or acquired and partial or complete hearing loss.
According to statistics, out of 1,000 children born at 15 there is some pathology in this region. In world society today more than 500 million people suffering from full or partial dysfunction of the auditory system.
Help. For children, this violation is very dangerous because deafness is fraught with weak language development. This is due to the fact that hard of hearing children do not perceive fully, as own speech, and the speech of strangers, which is why it is difficult for them to learn to talk.
The world leading specialist in this field believe that the pathology of the first signal system (hearing and sight, in this case we are interested in the first point) have a significant impact not only on verbal abilities. They can also significantly inhibit the development of physiology, anatomy and psychology of the baby.
Because hearing loss does not represent a clear deviation, identifying it is possible only with modern developments that are widely applied abroad, one of them is called universal neonatal screening.
Without such development, to know how hard of hearing little one, it is possible only when it reaches 2-3 years of age.
Also along with this it is known that the first year of life of the child is the most important for speech development. If in a given time period to undertake the necessary correction of the hearing by using hearing AIDS, then there is a possibility that it the baby will develop normally.
Through appropriate adjustment, the children with hearing impairment have a chance to develop normally.
Children with hearing impairment who are
Deafness, regardless of the level takes the crumbs the most important source of information, thereby reducing the development of intelligence to the minimum level.
This pathology has a direct impact on the development of the apparatus of speech and consequently disrupts the development of the ability to think and remember.
As there is no biological conditionality of the behavior of such children, while ensuring the necessary conditions at the maximum level it is possible to correct.
In this situation the main role in the familiarity with the environment plays visual and motor abilities, as well as the sense of touch.
According to statistics, such abnormalities in children are accompanied by the following features during development:
- 44% — deviations of the musculoskeletal device;
- 62% — unbalanced physiological development;
- 70% — the development of accompanying diseases;
- 80% lockup the development of motor skills.
Objective characteristics of preschool children in this case are the following:
- The inhibition of the development (physical and mental) in comparison with hearing peers for a couple of years.
- Low motor activity.
- Disorder of coordination and orientation in space.
- The slowness when performing certain movements.
- Difficulty switching attention.
- Sensitivity to climate change.
- Memorization based solely through vision.
Young people with similar deviation slowed information processing and difficulties in communicating with the outside world, which in some way appears in the formation of his personal qualities.
Difficulties in relationships with other children can trigger the formation of the negative character traits of a deaf kid who could turn into an aggressive and closed person.
Any deviations in the personal development, it is possible to eliminate if to provide timely remedial assistance and create necessary conditions.
Causes of hearing impairment in children
Factors contributing to hearing loss in children can be varied.
The main reasons for the development of such phenomena include:
- congenital abnormalities that are transmitted at the genetic level;
- disturbances in pregnancy and childbirth (infections that afflict the expectant mother, the use of unauthorized drugs, birth injury, the birth of a newborn weighing less than 1.5 kg);
- infectious diseases (rubella, mumps, influenza);
- frequent inflammatory processes in the ears (otitis and other ear diseases);
- injuries to the head and ears;
- prolonged exposure to abnormal noise and vibrations;
- the wrong treatment.
These reasons contribute to the emergence of this pathology in children, so not to worry about his baby at home to check the hearing of crumbs in the first year of life.
Parents to do this, perform the following steps:
- In response to loud sounds the baby starts to cry or widely opens his eyes.
- Baby can pay attention to the voices of mom and dad.
- In 1.5 months the child begins to pronounce the various sounds, later turning into a speech.
- In 4 months begins to turn his head, responding to voice and musical toys.
These simple steps will help ensure parents that their child is all right or Vice versa, time to raise the alarm, thereby ensuring the normal development of the baby.
The classification of children with hearing impairment
Many scientists at the time created certain classifications of children with disabilities hearing, based to perform work on a variety of factors.
Consider each such classification in detail.
Let’s start with Rachel Markovna was Boskic — Soviet deaf, which created the basis for the classification of disease in childhood, consisting of:
- the level of hearing loss;
- time of the deprivation hearing;
- the level of speech development.
In accordance with the above-mentioned factors define such groups of children that there is pathology of the auditory system:
- deaf children – hearing loss takes the opportunity to perceive it and explore it yourself;
Radiographie — already born with hearing problems or had lost it before the start of the period of speech development. Usually some probability to hear the still, which allows to perceive loud and strong sounds.
Pozdravlenie – lost hearing when it has already formed. And it in some measure preserved.
- hard-of-hearing children — there is partial hearing loss, which impedes speech development. However, the ability of self-accumulation of vocabulary.
A group of hearing-impaired children, in turn, is divided into children with preserved intellect and children with mental retardation.
B. S. Preobrazhensky, Soviet otolaryngologist and a scientist, examining a child’s deafness, in turn, identified 4 categories of hearing-impaired children:
- easy hearing loss – the child can distinguish it from 7-8 meters;
- moderate level of hearing loss — the ability to hear the conversation from 4 to 7 meters;
- a significant level of hearing loss – speech perception takes place with 2 to 4 meters;
- severe level of hearing loss – sounds are perceived with 1-2 meters.
French scientist Jean-Marc Gaspard ITAR – physician of the Paris institution of the deaf and inventor of the device for determining the subtleties of hearing (acoumeter) withdrew its classification of hearing impaired children:
- Hearing loud words near my ear.
- Determining vowels and consonants.
- Distinguishing certain vowels and consonants.
- Not distinguish the words, but hear the different sounds (thunder, signal machine).
- Deaf completely.
Help. Foreign experts define 3 levels of hearing loss: mild, moderate and severe, as well as 3 degrees of deafness, partial, full, almost complete.
Prevention of hearing impairment in children and adolescents
To avoid such deviations, should strictly abide by the rules rules prevention of hearing loss and deafness. They consists of the following recommendations:
- hardening, which increases resistance of the baby to infections;
- proper nutrition, which should include the necessary vitamins, fats, proteins and carbohydrates in required quantities;
- compliance with the normal levels for temperature and humidity;
- timely treatment of diseases and special measures for prevention of infectious diseases.
But in order to truly have evolved hearing organs, it is necessary to carry out the necessary hygiene of the ear:
- To clean the ears of the child from excessive concentrations of sulfur.
- Dress your child for the weather – always protect the ears, especially in the cold season.
- The sound volume should be in the range of 60-80 DB.
- To ensure that the baby was breathing by the nose.
In addition, very important in the prevention of this phenomenon is the timely definition of upper respiratory tract infections that often cause damage to the auditory organs. A doctor should be contacted immediately if you have the slightest suspicion on such problems.
In the modern world children’s deafness is not a death sentence. This pathology would not prevent the kid to become a productive member of society if he will be given enough attention of parents and physicians. The future of these children in the hands of loving parents.