Cyst of the frontal sinus: symptoms and treatment
Cyst in frontal sinus
Cyst of the frontal sinus (photo posted below) is a small globular formation of pathological origin, which is located in the frontal sinus. It consists of two walls, internal and external, and secretory fluid, which can be sterile (mucocele) or bacteriological (pyocele). The nature of the contents depends on the reasons for the formation of the cyst and its limitations. According to statistics, most often, the pathology observed in patients of both sexes aged 10 to 20 years. The elderly people who turned the threshold to 60 years, this disease is extremely rare.
The mechanism and causes of cysts
Frontal sinus covered by mucosal tissue with glands, whose main task is to formulate a secret. It is necessary for a natural and continuous humidification of the nasal cavity and protection from entering the inside of the microorganisms.
Each gland is thought your own outflow. If a person often have diseases of the nose, the walls begin to thicken the mucous that can lead to blockage of glandular ducts – obstruction.
That obstruction is the main factor, because of which formed a cyst as mucus, even if clogging of the outflow continues to be developed and thereby stretches the walls of the shells.
Tumors in the nasal cavity – the phenomenon not rare, but the vast majority of cysts you have on the front area. This is because the forehead is often exposed to injury, moreover, the fronto-nasal canal is a very complicated and long running. In addition to purulent and bacteriological content, the cyst may be filled with serous secretions (called a hydrocele), and in very rare cases is found pneumocele – accumulation of air.
Symptoms of the disease
Amazing pathology – cyst of the frontal sinus. The symptoms of the sick may not occur at all or give only after years and even decades. However, some characteristic features may indicate the appearance of tumors in the frontal sinus almost immediately:
- difficulty breathing;
- headaches mainly localized in the forehead and the nose;
- the regular incidence of sinusitis;
- the pressure in the eye;
- a sharp pain that appears when strong changes of atmospheric pressure (e.g., flight, water immersion).
In the later stages, the appearance of bulges in the region of the frontal sinuses, which may be noticeable to the eye or to diagnosed with feeling. If you put pressure on the ball, the patient will feel a sharp pain, sometimes can hear a distinct crackle or crackling. If the pressure is too strong, the result may be the formation of a fistula – holes, through which will enter the contents of the cyst. In very advanced cases the lower wall of the frontal sinus moves lower, which in turn causes lowering of the eyeball, sometimes offset to the outside.
Cyst of the frontal sinus (photo pathology see in the gallery) can also cause the vision loss. There are cases of violation of the perception of the color spectrum, the appearance of effect of «ghosting», the lowering of view. Intense watery eyes for no apparent reason is another sign talking about the possible formation of cysts.
Dangerous than the disease?
If time does not begin treatment, can form a special hole, called a fistula, through which the contents of the cyst will be taken to neighboring organs in the first place are the eyes. The most common complications such as phlegmon of the orbit, endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis. Rarely occurs meningitis and encephalitis.
Unfortunately, this inflammation is almost not amenable to conservative treatment, so the preferred method is surgical. A delay in treatment to the doctor or delaying radical treatment in purulent lesions of the orbit may cause complete removal of the organ of vision.
Due to the fact that it is often cystic formation in the sinuses of the frontal zone itself does not detect, in most cases, diagnosis is obtained by «random». The patient seeks help for other issues, and in the course of research it turns out an additional problem.
If there are specific complaints, the diagnosis is confirmed by radiography. As additional instrumental methods used ultrasound, MRI, diagnostic puncture and other methods. To assess the complications the physicians of narrow specialties: ophthalmologists and neurologists.
The difficulty of diagnosis in that small, occupying not more than 1/3 of the entire sinus cyst frontal sinus on the x-ray is not visible. In such cases, when the suspicion of neoplasm, it is recommended to do CT and MRI. Sometimes resort to the sensing of the sinuses to assess the status and patency of the frontal-nasal channel.
The main method of influence on such education – surgery. In case of severe symptoms or development of any complications, about any conservative and alternative methods of speech can not be. However, if discovered the «hidden» cyst of the frontal sinus, the treatment is done with medication that has anti-inflammatory and antiedematous action. To a fistula connecting the sinus, revealed that drugs aimed at specific results:
- self-disclosure anastomoses;
- liquefaction of the secretions;
- the flow of mucus from the frontal sinus area;
- recovery of the free air exchange of the sinuses;
- the regeneration of tissues lining the sinuses;
- eliminating swelling;
- leaching of pathogens to the masses.
After achieving these effects in the frontal sinus injected special substances that are gently washed by the education and simultaneously contribute to its resolution.
In some cases, there is spontaneous emptying of the cyst cavity when the mucus flows from the nasal passages to the outside. This may experience improvement, reducing pain, but the healing process is a similar phenomenon has nothing to do. It will take some time, and the cyst again filled with secret.
The next stage of conservative treatment and reducing inflamed mucous membranes. If the positive dynamics is observed the reduction of pain episodes, restoring normal breathing. But if there is no effect, does not change the cyst of the frontal sinus, and symptoms persist, surgery is indicated as soon as possible. Otherwise the possible complications that dramatically change the tactics of treatment and further complicate the healing process.
The classic method of surgical treatment of tumors in the frontal sinuses – frontonia. It represents the intervention of the open type, which is performed under General anesthesia and is accompanied by many undesirable effects. First and foremost, it is the excessive traumatization of the soft tissues and epithelium of the mucous membranes, which leads to reflex contraction of the channels and impaired respiratory function. Secondly, after this operation remains clearly visible external defect. And finally, in the third – the period of reconstruction after the classic frontlinie takes a long time.
To replace the standard approach came endoscopic technique, allowing the same manipulation but with the least risk. Using a special flexible tube, which is equipped with a microscopic camera, surgeons reach the cyst through the nasal passages. Through them there are other surgical manipulators, and through these same holes eliminated the cyst.
The advantages of endoscopic techniques include the lack of unwanted effects characteristic of classical frontlinie:
- the reduction of the duration of the operation;
- minimum lose healthy tissue;
- short rehabilitation period;
- moderate pain during and after the intervention;
- the lack of scars;
- normal breathing.
Alas, endoscopes and related equipment have a relatively high cost, so not all medical institutions equipped with this technology.
Upon the slightest suspicion of cystic formation in the sinuses, not only frontal, but also in other, preferably as soon as possible to consult with a physician ENT practice. The delay and hope for a «miracle cure» can cost much more than the cost of medications or surgery.