Cyst of the maxillary sinus: what is it

Cyst the left and right maxillary sinus

The human nose is surrounded by the paranasal sinuses, each of which performs its function and is responsible for a specific task. And they are all subject to «attack» from the outside: attack viruses, bacteria and fungi occur every minute. And in most cases, sinus attacks successfully opposed. But sometimes the invader comes from within, and often prefers the maxillary cavity. Such aggressors is the cyst of the maxillary sinus, which is statistically formed from 6-13% of the population. Of these, approximately 10% of patients, and know nothing about the disease until a chance discovery.

Origin, types and symptoms

Cyst in maxillary sinus – an abnormal formation located on the walls of the maxillary cavity. Is a spherical tank with a thin but elastic shells filled with secretory fluid. Often «attached» to the lower sinus wall.

The larger the tumor, the more pronounced the symptoms. The fluid inside the cyst may be purulent or sterile, depending on the severity and duration of disease.

The reasons for the formation of such a «ball» can be:

  • chronic diseases of the nasal cavity (rhinitis, sinusitis);
  • polyps;
  • disturbances in the anatomical structure of the nose;
  • the incidence of the common cold and SARS;
  • Allergy symptoms;
  • inflammation of the teeth or periodontal tissues in the back row of the upper jaw.

The types of cystic masses are divided into true and false. To the true forms there is retention cyst of the maxillary sinuses, are lined with epithelial mucous membranes. She provoked just the same common diseases of different origin and anatomical features. About education pseudocyst that consists of shells without the epithelium. They occur because of disorders or diseases of the dentition and errors in dental treatment.

If the cyst is small in size (less than 1.5 cm in diameter), symptoms are often absent, and the presence of a tumor in the nasal sinuses, the patient learns in connection with studies of quite different issues. If the cyst is badly located or have grown to a decent size, it can make itself in the following ways:

  • continuous or periodic nasal congestion without signs of General inflammation;
  • difficulty breathing, shortness of breath;
  • bouts of dizziness or headache localized mainly in the region of the temples and neck;
  • regular sinusitis, frontal sinusitis and other sinusitis;
  • sharp pain when pressure drops in the plane, under water;
  • recurring discomfort in the upper jaw or forehead.
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Another sign is discharge from the nose. However, they accompany symptoms not always, but only in case of rupture of the tank. The mucus has a yellowish, turbid or transparent color, and can only derive from one nostril. If torn, the cyst right maxillary sinus, the mucus secreted from the right half of the nose. Similarly, with the left side. Leakage of secret for a long time without other signs of the cyst may also be indicative of getting into the nasal cavity foreign object.

One of the symptoms, or a combination thereof does not provide a direct basis for the diagnosis «cyst of the sinuses», as these features are characteristic for other diseases. However, it is an occasion for further and very careful examination, in the first place – radiography of the maxillary sinus and dental examination.

Education in odontogenic maxillary cavity

The development of the human organism and its «adjustment» to meet modern requirements has led to the fact that the wisdom teeth have become essentially a vestigial (unnecessary), and maxillary sinus from small and large molars separated by a thin layer of bone. Therefore, any inflammation of these teeth may provoke the disease in the nasal cavity. Sometimes kolokolnia a cyst moves and continues to grow in the maxillary sinus.

As the tank is filled with fluid most often with pathogens, inflammation of the following the cyst passes into the cavity, causing the symptoms. In some cases, the disease develops almost imperceptibly, being shown except a slight discomfort in the region of upper dentition Yes, excessive accumulation of mucus in the nose and throat during the night. And any inflammation, whether viral rhinitis or infection of the gums can be a starting point for the rapid development of the disease.

The growth of odontogenic cysts is increasing and more and more fills the space of the sinus. In severe cases it completely covers the entire cavity and begins to destroy the mucous membrane, followed by bone tissue. In the first place among similar entities of liquidation of the subject that is of odontogenic cyst of the maxillary sinus.

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Dimensions for removal is considered to be in centimeters: if the «ball» is less than 1.5 cm, not growing and no problems, do not touch it. But carefully controlled. When the cyst is more than 1.5 cm or the formation of less than the specified value, but provoking uncomfortable symptoms, make the decision about surgical intervention.

Diagnostic points

In the diagnosis of such tumors in the maxillary cavity in the first place two questions:

  1. Bad tooth, or rather the definition thereof.
  2. Assessment of the sinus and the clarification of details about the localization and nature of the cyst.

The answers to both questions are given with the help of instrumental examination, in particular radiography and computed tomography. However, the conventional x-ray is no good here. Necessary orthopantomogram that shows exactly where and how entrenched the tumor on the left side or has formed a cyst right maxillary sinus. What is it? This is a panoramic picture, it is now mostly digital, which makes the image of the dentition clear, and the pattern of the surrounding soft tissues blurred.

However, the preferred option is a method of diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography. It covers the most important areas of the face: the upper and middle part. The most informative study, the recognized diagnostic endoscopy, which not only details allows you to inspect the affected sinus, but also to identify anatomical, physiological features of the structure and tissues of the nasal cavity, to understand the complexity of the situation and to plan operational activities. Removal of cysts of the maxillary sinus of odontogenic type, preferably also with the help of an endoscope.

Treatment: classic or modern

Therapy of such diseases of the nasal cavity in most cases is of radical character, whether a tumor in the frontal sinus or odontogenic cyst of the maxillary sinus.

Treatment conservative methods effect often does not serve to facilitate the patient’s life or to speed up recovery and rehabilitation.

Your specialist for selection you have three options:

  1. Classical resection.
  2. Laser technique.
  3. Endoscopy.
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The first two methods, though effective in fully, but are open access, which is more traumatic to healthy tissues. In addition, the terms of rehabilitation after abdominal intervention lengthened, and postoperative problems (pain, breathing problems, swelling) to last longer. Endoscopic removal of cysts of the maxillary sinus considered less traumatic to the mucous membranes, more safe in terms of subsequent complications and very effective method.

Such interventions are performed under local anesthetics and takes no more than 40 minutes of time. The surgeons monitor the progress of the operation on the monitors, where transmits the image camera with endoscope. Every movement is under control in the literal sense, which ensures the precision and accuracy of the work of doctors. Although after endoscopy in the nasal cavity as there is a risk to «earn» a complication, such a possibility is almost two times less than the classical surgery.

Even asymptomatic, is a cyst in the left maxillary sinus or the right or both at once – not a harmless disease that is subject to people’s self-healing and patient waiting in the style of «self-will». This is a serious pathology, which, at least, requires medical supervision, and for the most – operative assistance.