Cystography bladder: characteristics and preparation
Cystography is a diagnostic endoscopic evaluation, which is performed by means of x-ray radiation. In modern medicine it is most often cystografin methods of examination are used to detect various pathologies the structure and shape of the bladder, urinary tract and ureters.
Identification of pathological conditions of the bladder is an integral step in the process of treatment of various diseases of the genitourinary system. Endoscopy of organs of genitourinary sphere is assigned both adults and children. X-rays of the bladder allows the doctor to put a correct diagnosis to the patient and prescribe the necessary course of treatment to eliminate the existing pathology.
What is a cystography?
As mentioned above, cystography organs of the urogenital system is a method of diagnostic survey applied in urology, with the goal of detecting abnormalities of the genitourinary sphere. Such diagnostic methods are performed by introducing into the cavity of the bladder of a special contrast substance followed by radiography. Injected contrast medium can be both gaseous and liquid. Radiopaque preparation is introduced into the body through a catheter. There are two forms of contrast agent which is most commonly used in modern medicine:
- Ascending cystography – state of the art diagnostic technique, which is based on the introduction of a radiopaque substance directly into the cavity of the bladder. A special drug is injected through the catheter – this is done in the interval between emptying of the bladder urine and the subsequent urge to urinate.
- Descending cystography is the diagnostic technique is based on the introduction of a special contrast agent intravenously, by injection. Of course, until such time as the drug gets into the cavity of the bladder will take time – usually at least an hour. And only then it is possible to zistografii, otherwise the test results will be false. It is through this long and time-consuming process of identifying existing abnormalities of the urogenital sphere, an increasing number of experts believe more effective technique of rising cystography. In addition, during the ascending cystography is possible to obtain better and more reliable results, in turn, the downward method is less efficient.
- In some cases recommended to conduct mictional cystography – this technique involves the examination only at the time of urination. Of course, such an x-ray examination is quite difficult, and therefore today does not enjoy a wide popularity.
With the introduction of contrast medium to internal organs such as the bladder becomes more clear and vivid outline, which then becomes possible to consider stones or other abnormalities in the cavity of the internal organ. Also x-rays of the bladder are widely used for the detection of benign or malignant tumours of organs of genitourinary sphere.
Indications and contraindications for cystography
Endoscopy of the bladder is performed in the following cases:
- In cases of suspected tuberculosis of the genitourinary system.
- Cystography is assigned to determine whether tumors are benign or malignant nature of pelvic area.
- If you suspect that sand or stones in the bladder rentgenologicheski methods of research are considered most informative.
- Detection of congenital abnormalities of the urinary system, which is most often used in the case of diagnosis in young children.
- In cases of suspected vesico-ureteral reflux or serious injury of the bladder the most common diagnostic tests used cystography.
- The indications for cystography bladder are considered to be a variety of complications after illness of an infectious nature.
- Also, it is cystography the bladder is performed if the diagnosis of the patient’s enuresis. Most often this problem faced by children and adolescents, and cystography allows you to determine the exact cause of the disease and prescribe the necessary treatment.
Despite its numerous advantages, this technique has few contraindications in which the conduct of diagnostic procedures is strictly prohibited.
- Diagnosis does not apply to pregnant women.
- This radiology procedure is not prescribed to patients who are diagnosed with inflammation in the bladder and urinary channels.
- If the patient has urination with blood, holding cystography is strictly prohibited.
In the case of conducting the ascending cystography the urinary organs, directly into the cavity of the body is injected about 0.2 l special contrast agent, while the patient is in the supine position. All jewelry and accessories at the time of the diagnostic procedure should be removed, as they can distort the informative value of the result. In the majority of cases during the procedure it is recommended to release the study on clothing and to wear a special medical underwear.
After the radiology drug is administered into the cavity of the bladder, the catheter clamp to avoid leakage of medication. Next, make x-ray images from different positions when the patient lies on his back, on his side, at the time of urination or after it.
It should be noted that cystography is accompanied by significant pain, and therefore, if necessary, in the conduct of young children cystography is performed with the simultaneous use of analgesic drugs. After the procedure, the doctor compares the images taken before the x-ray of the bladder and the images obtained during the procedure – this gives you the ability to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the necessary treatment.
Preparing for cystography bladder
The first rule of proper preparation for the study of the bladder is to elimination of increased gas formation in the intestine, which can significantly distort the result of the study.
2-3 days before the procedure should be to adhere to a strict diet with complete exclusion of foods that increase flatulence. Such products can be attributed to strong tea and coffee, soft drinks and mineral water, beans and other legumes, cabbage, dairy products, whole milk, corn. In the morning, prior to cystography, the patient enema is placed, which stimulates the complete emptying of the intestinal contents.
Before performing diagnosis of the bladder is mandatory to consult with a nephrologist, radiologist and urologist. They will give all the necessary guidelines by which the results of cystography bladder will be the most productive and informative.
Implications of the study of the bladder
The main danger after the study of the organs of the urogenital area is the elimination of the contrast medium from the human body. In order to facilitate this process, after conducting the diagnostic procedure is recommended for about 24 hours to adhere to strict bed rest – thanks to the x-ray excretion of the drug occurs more easily and painlessly.
In extremely rare cases may develop dangerous complications such as urinary infections that is a result of the production of the catheter. This complication occurs in very rare cases and requires immediate treatment. Also among the rare complications cystography can be attributed to the accidental injury of the mucous membrane of the urethra, or directly to the bladder, which is often a result of lack of experience among medical staff. In order to avoid such situation, you should only go to experienced doctors in a large, respected diagnostic centers.