Acute periodontitis: symptoms, causes and symptoms
Is called periodontitis inflammatory gum disease that affects periodontal tissues: mucosa, ligament that holds the tooth in the hole, the jawbone. Found in a large number of people at different stages, thus affected can be as small areas and broad groups of teeth.
Causes of periodontitis:
Most often the disease develops due to plaque, which penetrate under the gum, forming periodontal pockets. Through them pathogenic microorganisms in deeper tissue and lead to the formation of the inflammatory process.
Stages and forms of periodontal disease
Pathology there are 3 stages:
With the transition to each next stage the symptoms are worse the patient’s condition deteriorates. Acute periodontitis without proper treatment becomes chronic, with symptoms of the disease subside, but relapses occur regularly.
Acute periodontitis is manifested pronounced symptoms of chronic is sluggish, it is much harder to treat.
According to the classification of the disease is localized and generalized. In localized manifestations of the disease affect a small group of teeth, generalized affects an extensive area that can affect the jaw.
The symptoms of periodontitis
Periodontitis light stage has the following symptoms:
- Swelling, loosening, lividity of the gums.
- Bleeding during brushing.
- Small gum pockets up to 3 mm.
- Viscous saliva.
Normally in this stage patients do not feel a lot of discomfort. In the transition to more severe forms occur:
- The enhancement of bleeding.
- Bloating in the gums.
- Education deeper periodontal pockets up to 5 mm.
- The appearance of gaps between teeth due to resorption of interdental partitions.
- Occurs a slight loosening of the teeth back and forth.
- Exposure of the tooth neck.
- The unpleasant smell.
- Acute periodontitis develops rapidly. Manifested by severe pain on palpation of gums, bleeding, discomfort during chewing of food. The acute form occurs much less frequently than the chronic.
Signs of periodontitis the most severe stage:
- Atrophy of the bone tissue.
- Severe swelling, redness of the gums.
- Exposure of roots of teeth.
- Deep periodontal pockets more than 5 mm.
- Purulent discharge from under the gums, the formation of abscesses, sinus tracts.
- Significant mobility, displacement, loss of teeth.
- Increase, inflammation of the regional lymph nodes.
- Strong throbbing pain while brushing teeth.
The impact of periodontitis
The inflammatory process may spread to the pulp of the tooth and cause the development of pulpitis from externally of the whole tooth. Infection enters through the hole in the root canal.
Chronic periodontitis can lead to the formation of osteomyelitis causes abscess jaw bone. Also occurs the formation of purulent masses in the soft tissues of the alveolar process. Necrotic education lead to General intoxication, deterioration of health, fever.
Tooth mobility influences the quality of chewing food, so they can suffer the digestive tract.
The treatment of periodontitis
First, the dentist removes the Tartar and plaque. Without this procedure the treatment will not give positive result. Doing an open or closed curettage for removal of the deeply located solid plaque. In the initial stages of such procedures is sufficient for recovery.
In more advanced forms of periodontitis are performing lavage of periodontal pockets and provide a special anti-inflammatory medication. When purulent secretions prescribe antibiotics: Lincomycin, Doxycycline. It is important to take antibiotics only as directed by your doctor, otherwise the General condition may deteriorate, there is a resistance to the drug.
Locally do applique healing gel: Metrogyl Denta, Asepta. Drugs have analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory effect. If there are abscesses, make them the opening for the discharge of necrotic masses.
Also you need to perform regular antiseptic rinsing solutions Furatsilina, Chlorhexidine, decoctions of herbs. Lavage performed 5-6 times a day. Useful to massage the gums, physiotherapy to normalize the blood circulation. Vitamin-mineral complex indicated for normalization of mineral metabolism, immunomodulators (Imudon) – to enhance the body’s resistance to pathogenic infections.
To eliminate the mobility of the teeth is performed splinting of mobile units. In severe cases, the use of surgical methods of treatment to restore gingival contour.
Therapy should be comprehensive, choice of the technique depends on the form and stage of disease.
To prevent the development of disease, reduce the recurrence, observe the following rules:
- To perform regular hygienic care of the oral cavity. To pay attention to the interdental spaces. When the plaque is recommended to use whitening toothpastes, if there is no tooth sensitivity.
- Regularly visit the dentist to remove dental plaque.
- Eat solid food: carrots, apples, pears. It helps to massage the gums, stimulating blood circulation. In addition, the body receives the vitamins and minerals.
- Timely treatment of caries, pulpitis, chronic diseases. The restoration of the teeth removes the excessive load from the adjacent units and reduces the risk of developing periodontitis, alveolar ridge atrophy.
- When properly installed prostheses replace them with new ones.
- The rejection of bad habits.
To keep teeth healthy and strong, you need 2 times a year to conduct a routine inspection at the dentist. With early detection of periodontal disease treatment is not time consuming, can be performed quickly, without pain and discomfort.