Chronic periodontitis: causes, symptoms and treatment

In my practice, each specialist in the field of dentistry meets such disease as chronic periodontitis quite often. Periodontitis – inflammatory disease of the flow, which is directly connected with the teeth. With the development of this pathology affects the tissues of the teeth and changes in the normal structure of the alveolar portion of the jaw.

The name of the periodontium includes all of the tissues surrounding and holding the element of the tooth in the hole. Such tissues include the gums, mucous membranes, vocal cords. When infection, inflammation starts in between gums and tooth, in the end, it begins a gradual defeat of the bonding part of the tooth and surrounding bone.

Most often chronic periodontitis is observed in 95% of patients with diseases of the oral cavity. At risk people in the age group of 35 to 45 years.

Why developing periodontitis

Хронический пародонтит: причины, признаки и лечениеEvery second in the mouth of any person reproduce, and die several hundreds of microbes. Remnants of their life accumulate on the tooth surface in the form of deposits and plaque. While cleaning these savings are removed from the teeth, but again accumulates after a couple of hours. In about 2-3 days the plaque thickens and pereimenovaniya in stone, to get rid of which is possible only when conducting profligacy in the dentist’s office, because toothbrushes and dental floss in such a situation, is completely useless.

In many cases, due to improper care for the oral cavity in humans begins its development the disease is periodontitis, the signs of which will not take long to wait for virtually any age category.

To start the accumulation of dental plaque irritate the gum tissue, causing gingivitis, and subsequently formed the so-called gingival pockets in the gums are detached from the root portion of the tooth, leaving a void, filling with germs and food particles. As a result – neglected, chronic periodontitis, which can quickly lead to the destruction of nearby bone tissue and subsequent hair loss problem tooth.

In addition to dental plaque, periodontitis can occur and for the following reasons:

  • Bad genes – those cases where the disease is associated with the predisposition of the patient to the disease, so even excessive cleanliness of the mouth will not give absolutely no effect;
  • Хронический пародонтит: причины, признаки и лечениеBad habits – e.g. Smoking – nicotine greatly reduces the immune system, which helps to create a wonderful environment for active microbial reproduction environment, reduces the healing of damaged periodontal;
  • Taking certain drugs – funds from colds, antidepressants are composed of substances that reduce the flow of saliva. Because it performs the basic function of disinfection, and of course, if you decline – dramatically increase the activity of the buildup of dental plaque;
  • Various diseases can also cause periodontitis;
  • Improper diet – when your daily intake of foods are missing essential vitamins (calcium, b, C), then the risk of lesions of the oral cavity periodontitis is doubled.

Chronic periodontitis: classification

Taking into account the localization of the inflammatory disease process in dentistry note focal and diffuse chronic periodontitis. The clinical picture of this form of periodontal disease is the alternation of the phase of exacerbation with remission.

Stands out 3 degrees of chronic forms of periodontitis:

  • Хронический пародонтит: причины, признаки и лечениеThe initial degree – compact plate becomes a fibrous, begin manifestations of osteoporosis, shortened the height of the partitions between the teeth more than a quarter of the entire length of the root. Deep pockets about 2.5 mm;
  • Easy stage is characterized by pocket depth up to 3.5 mm, shortening of the alveolar process a third more than the length of the root portion of the tooth, the beginning of the weak mobility of teeth;
  • Medium — heavy phase is determined by the presence of periodontal pockets up to 5 mm, shortening of the alveolar bone by about 50% the length of the root, the teeth are in the 2-3 degree of freedom;
  • Severe stage of chronic form of periodontitis – periodontal pockets greater than 5 mm in depth decreases alveolar bone more than half the length of the root portion of the tooth, tooth mobility reaches 4 degrees. In a course of the disease, there is complete destruction of bone tissue, lose binder system and a complete loss of the element of the tooth.
  • Methods for determining disease

  • When there is a couple of signs of chronic type of periodontitis, then you should as soon as possible to go on reception to the expert. One of the essential methods for diagnosis, which helps determine the disease is considered to measure the depth of the periodontal pocket or gingival sulcus. For this manipulation applies specialized dental tools placed in the cavity between tooth and gum for accurate measurements;
  • The use of x-ray apparatus. For the early stages of periodontal disease common characteristic of osteoporosis at the top and in the center of mezhalveolyarnyh partitions. In the process of active progress, there is complete destruction. This pathology gives rise to the appearance of bone pockets.
  • Signs of periodontitis

    Symptomatology depends on the shape and extent of the cancer. Often the following signs:

    • Хронический пародонтит: причины, признаки и лечениеSoreness in the gums;
    • Deformation, swelling and agrowaste gums;
    • Bleeding when brushing your teeth;
    • The emergence of a fetid smell from the mouth;
    • The presence of periodontal pockets;
    • The slight mobility of the tooth element;
    • The Department of purulent contents of the pockets;
    • The sensitivity of the gingival surface;
    • The presence of excessive amounts of dental plaque or stones;
    • Distortion of taste.

    The healing process

    If there is any suspicion at the beginning of the development of periodontitis is important as quickly as possible to go to the dentist, because such a disease does not get cured on their own.

    Treatment of chronic periodontitis is conducted through practical and therapeutic ways. The method of treatment depends on the form and stage of the disease. Treatment using conservative treatment often used for initial stage of development of periodontitis, as well as preventive measures. This event will take proper care, teeth cleaning from deposits, polishing of the enamel layer, the processing of the root part and the crown. With this purpose, specialized dental brushes with a variety of additional equipment.

    Хронический пародонтит: причины, признаки и лечениеA good result can be obtained from the manipulation for the removal of dental plaque. In modern dental clinics it is often called a curettage. This procedure is carried out with the use of dental kuretani spoon, special excavators or carriages (closed curettage). If the issue is resolved with surgery, it usually requires curettage of the open type. When the depth of periodontal pockets greater than 5 mm, then cleaning is the only method to eliminate the uncomfortable symptoms of the disease.

    If you need surgery, the most commonly used method is with patchwork treatment. The essence of the method is that the removed surface portion of gingival tissue, then thoroughly cleaned the root of the tooth. When the manipulation is completed, the part of the injured gums is restored. The main goal of surgery – recycling of stone and sediment in a relatively short period, which gives the opportunity to significantly strengthen its element and allows you to stay healthy and strong for a long time.

    Chronic periodontitis is a disease of an infectious nature. Therefore, immediately after the treatment, the dentist is obliged to prescribe the necessary treatment with application of antibiotic. To self-medicate in this pathology is absolutely contraindicated!

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