Desquamative glossitis: causes and treatment

Десквамативный глоссит: причины и лечение

The mouth determines the health of the entire gastro-intestinal system and digestive tract, in turn, promotes health and supports the normal functioning of the organism as a whole. The oral cavity is so important, because it is here that the primary processing of food – formation of food bolus. It is impossible to prevent the formation of pathological processes in the mouth, however, if they arise, the treatment must begin immediately. The food is chewed, crushed and moistened with saliva. Grinding food is teeth, wetting with saliva, which is produced in the salivary glands. But for some reason there is a constant underestimation of the role of language in the oral cavity. Many people are unaware of its immense importance to perform all these functions. Apart from the fact that language is involved in grinding and chewing of food, it performs a very important function itself forms a food ball, pushes it to the root of the tongue, thereby facilitating the act of swallowing. In violation of the functions of language or the diseases the normal function of processing food becomes simply impossible.

Language as an organ

Surely everyone has heard the saying «loose tongue», but not even thought about the meaning of the jokes. Indeed, language is exclusively a muscular organ that does not contain any, even minor, stone. The language of the outside covered with a mucous membrane, consists of two groups of muscles your own muscles in the tongue and skeletal muscle of the group. To own muscles of the tongue include:

  • longitudinal muscle;
  • the muscles, running in a transverse direction;
  • obliquely oriented bundles of muscle tissue.

To the group of skeletal muscles involved in the formation of language, include:

  • chin-lingual;
  • hyoid-lingual;
  • silvatico muscles.

Десквамативный глоссит: причины и лечение

Skeletal group are presented in pairs, i.e. one the same muscle on each side.

Language divided by a cross furrow, which separates the tongue from his body. This place is a blind hole – the area from which during fetal development formed the thyroid gland. From the lower surface of the tongue to the floor of the mouth mucosa stretches the cord – bridle, the right attachment which also plays an important role in their health. The surface of the body of the tongue is studded with small spines – papillae. They can be different and each performed its function:

  • filamentous forms papillae – the most numerous, they create the roughness of the language and provide the processing of food;
  • mushroom – these are the main taste receptors of the tongue, these papillae are perceived flavor characteristics of the food that we eat;
  • the leaf is another type of receptor that perceives the taste. But the number of these papillae are not so numerous, their total number does not exceed 50;
  • globomedia also perceive taste.
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Language features

As has been said, language is the most important organ of our body. He focuses the following functions:

  • the grinding of food and the formation of the bolus;
  • is the gustatory analyzer;
  • involved in the formation of sounds.

An interesting fact is that even in ancient Russia, it was known the disease desquamative glossitis. When a person spoke the phrase «bite your tongue», it means it is this disease, the person wanted the pain that he could no longer say bad things.

General characteristics

Десквамативный глоссит: причины и лечение

Desquamative glossitis is a disease of the mucosa of the tongue is not enough clear etiology and pathogenesis, often do not require active treatment. Desquamative glossitis and its causes and treatment – this is a serious question, makes argue great minds of medicine. It is believed that the disease can lie:

  • hereditary factors – it is scientifically proven that children without a history of any disease is neither viral or acute infectious or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract – suffer from this pathology. It is almost always associated with the presence of a similar process in one of the parents from whom the child inherited it;
  • most often, the causes of glossitis are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • a possible cause may be diseases of the nervous and endocrine systems;
  • not downplayed and the role of pathogens – viruses, especially herpes, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr – often become if not the only cause of the development of desquamative glossitis then certainly propose its development.

Interesting fact: desquamative glossitis is also known as «geographic tongue». This happens due to the constant exfoliation of stratified squamous keratinized epithelium of the mucosa of the tongue, which on its surface is formed like folds and striations, making a similar surface of the tongue to the drawing of geographic maps.

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The clinical picture

Clinically, the disease may be asymptomatic. But in most cases patients still complain of:

  • minor painful sensations;
  • tingling sensation, numbness;
  • the paresthesia;
  • irritation food.

Десквамативный глоссит: причины и лечение

The disease begins with the formation of small rounded foci of desquamation, often on the body of the tongue close to the border with the root. The focus of desquamation is a circular defect, the bottom of which is bright red or covered with a dull film, and the contour are whitish cells Kumanovo epithelium. Deskvamirovannyh foci may be single, but often many of these centers, they intertwine and overlap, all the time changing the appearance of the outer surface of language or, as it is called, of the back. The lesions spread across the surface, capturing new, healthy, tissue. So another name for this process – migratory glossitis.

The disease affects in the same degree both men and women. Occurs in children suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or with acute and chronic diseases.


As a rule, the disease is easily diagnosed due to its characteristic appearance. However, there are a number of diseases that can mimic the clinical course desquamative glossitis. These include:

  • leukoplakia;
  • oral lichen planus;
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • hyperkeratosis;
  • stomatitis;
  • some types of candidiasis.

In cases where diagnosis is difficult, it is necessary to conduct histological examination. Thus in the material selected for the study, will be found thinned flat cells of the epithelium, and flattened filiform papillae. Possible detection of para — and hyperkeratosis.


Десквамативный глоссит: причины и лечение

Desquamative glossitis and its treatment is based on the following principle, which is the main law for any doctor – do no harm. This means that the desquamative glossitis does not require treatment if takes place completely asymptomatic. That is, if any discomfort or discomfort no, it is better to process is not to intervene and the treatment is not carried out, so as not to hurt and not to worsen the clinical course. However, at the first, even minor, manifestations type of burning, pain, itching, irritation from food, perversion of taste indicators – you need to contact the doctor, who, based on the severity of the process, will appoint the necessary treatment.

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In cases where the process is not yet severe, the recommended treatment in the form of proper oral hygiene and constant rinsing with antiseptic solutions. In addition, as the assigned treatment oral the bath solutions of citral and antiseptics and regular irrigation. In explaining the presence among ideologicheskih causes of viral pathogens requires the administration of antiviral and antibacterial drugs. Good results for wound healing give solutions oils: rose, tea tree, olive, clove, as well as vitamins E, C, A. In severe cases inside recommend the appointment patentante 3 times a day.

In addition to local treatment, to achieve good results, it is necessary to investigate the General causes of the disease and eliminate them, whether it’s diseases of the nervous, endocrine or gastrointestinal system. It will not hurt and restorative therapy in the form of immunomodulatory drugs and vitamins.

In General the disease is chronic in nature. To recover from it completely, is unfortunately impossible, especially in the elderly. But modern medicine helps to achieve long-term remission of the disease, as well as bessimptomnom of the disease, making the forecast not so grim.