Disease of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity: the lesion and disease

Oral mucosa is frequently exposed to various diseases. Definition of the disease requires certain skills and abilities, as they occur in very similar or same symptoms.

Most often the oral mucosa affect different types of stomatitis, but there are other diseases which bring a lot of discomfort and even complications.


The causes of shell disease of the oral mucosa, is very diverse:

  • Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниproblems with the gastrointestinal tract;
  • diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • any allergies;
  • reduced efficiency of the immune system;
  • violated the metabolism;
  • failure to observe the simplest hygiene measures;
  • damage to teeth, which cause different infections;
  • technically incorrectly performed dental service;
  • any negative factors directly affecting the mucosa.

Most often, these reasons cause stomatitis. But there are plenty of other diseases that can cause these diseases.


Take a closer look.


As a rule, cannot be considered a separate disease stomatitis. It is invoked in the course of allergies to various stimuli from the outside. Its main characteristics: white spots or redness on the mucous membrane, along which may occur a bleeding scars and puzyrechki.


This disease is characterized by superficial lesions of the shell of the oral cavity ulcerations and erosions, which are circular in shape and clear outline. Usually in diameter they are small, but aphthae have unpleasant consequences such as pain and fever. Traces of shell disease of the oral mucosa disappear after about a week, but can occur again. The treatment is prescribed by a doctor, and most likely it will include taking pain medications and vitamin-mineral complexes to strengthen the immune system, and asepsis.

Stomatitis Vincent

Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниSuch stomatitis behaves as a passive infection: microorganisms are waiting for, when the body is weakened, for example, in very stressful situations, deficiency and reduced immunity. This gives the bacteria the advantage, and they begin to be active. Most often from disease are young men.

This form is accompanied by fever, gums are covered with ulcers and bleeding. The depth of ulcers and the temperature span depends on the complexity of the disease. He treated with the same drugs as canker, but in the later stages at high temperatures are assigned to the even and medicines that reduce fever.

Bacterial or traumatic

It appears as a result of various injuries, which affected mucous membrane. Injury to the sheath can result from a blow to the face, falls, improperly performed dental operations, and even careless brushing.


It causes ordinary cold sores, so the disease most often affects young children under the age of 3 years. The kids experience symptoms similar to the manifestations of intoxication:

  • there is weakness;
  • temperature increases;
  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • a child is sick;
  • occurs irritable bowel syndrome.

After passing all stages, the mucous membrane is red and covered with vesicles. They eventually opened and leave open sores which heal slightly more than a week.

Fungal (thrush)

Thrush occurs either due to the lack of proper care for the oral cavity or in the injury of the mucosa. It often affects children who have a weakened immune system.


Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниIt is far more common than all other forms. His reasons are as follows:

  • broken hygiene measures in relation to the oral cavity;
  • there are various dental diseases;
  • gastrointestinal diseases like gastritis or duodenitis;
  • worm infestation.

There is swelling of the mucous membrane, formed on it, the plaque is white or yellow, increased salivation, gums are bleeding profusely, from his mouth comes a very unpleasant and foul smell.


Can develop as a separate disease, but maybe as a continuation of the catarrhal. Usually suffer from it people with ulcers and enteritis, and diseases of the cardiovascular system, infectious diseases and hemorrhages. Ulcerative form affects the entire thickness of the mucosa. The first signs of:

  • fever;
  • there comes a feeling of weakness;
  • headaches;
  • enlarged lymph nodes;
  • aching pain when eating food.
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This form of stomatitis requires immediate referral to a specialist.

Additional information

Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниOften stomatitis occur due to lesions of the internal organ systems. They may be the harbingers of any disease of internal organs. These manifestations most often tell of the diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, blood and endocrine glands. The ratio of problems with the signs:

  • when problems with the gastrointestinal tract normally changes the color of the mucosa, there is a RAID in the language and form painful sores;
  • cardiovascular disease manifested by cyanosis (blue discoloration) of the skin, appearance of ulcers of different sizes, which covers gray patina. Besides, they smell very bad and extremely painful, making it difficult to meals;
  • diabetes entails the inflammation of the gums, dry mouth, cracked lips and sores;
  • Addison’s disease (disrupted adrenal cortex) causes the appearance of bands of blue or grayish-black on the mucosa. Patients can only see but no sensation there;
  • blood disorders can lead to severe ulcerations, which are caused by the reduced efficiency of the immune system.

To treat such a disease should not only a dentist, but the doctors a certain direction depending on the nature of the symptoms and their severity.

Treatment of folk remedies

Stomatitis is characterized primarily by the presence of ulcers and erosions in the oral cavity. To get rid of them by any of infusions and decoctions, which have anti-inflammatory properties. Usually this type of action have decoctions on the basis of: chamomile, calendula, tormentil and eucalyptus. To restore the epithelium after ulcers you can use oils (sea buckthorn and rose hips), juice of Kalanchoe or aloe.

Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниSeparately, you can select the treatment of fungal stomatitis. It can be removed when using soda solution, Lugol’s solution, diluted in water with potassium permanganate and various decoctions antiseptic action on the basis of juniper and yarrow.

Traditional medicine should not be neglected, but to not get involved with them. Before you apply any traditional method, talk with your doctor – he will tell you will help you this method or harm. In no case do not self-medicate.


Medication is usually prescribed depending on the forms of stomatitis. There are several groups that are prescribed for diseases of the shell:

  • antibacterial;
  • antiseptic;
  • with anesthetic effect;
  • helping to heal wounds after the sores;
  • antiviral;
  • increase the efficiency of the immune system.

Drugs can be taken only in combination, since individually they will have no effect and will not remove the painful symptoms.


Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниBest at the first sign of stomatitis to seek dental care in a good clinic with modern methods of medicine. The doctor will remove all the unpleasant symptoms, restore balance inside the mouth and eliminate bacteria that brought the infection.

The best prevention of stomatitis is proper nutrition (no sweet and flour products) and a good annealing. You should also abandon all the habits, which are classified as harmful – Smoking, alcohol. This will not only improve oral health but also overall health.

Other diseases

Consider the most common.


Is inflammation of the lining of the tongue. Usually fires only the surface of the shell, but serious injury can cause inflammation, leading a swelling and purulent appearance until abscess. In this case, it becomes difficult to swallow food, increase the body temperature. In this condition it is better not to bring in time to see a dentist. Self-medication will lead to serious complications.

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Inflammatory process involving the gums. There are 3 forms of the disease: acute, chronic and recurrent. The most common causes of inflammation are:

  • violation of oral hygiene;
  • the formation of dental plaque or stone;
  • malocclusion;
  • remaining in your mouth food particles;
  • old fillings.

Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниIt is separately necessary to tell about teenagers and pregnant mothers: cause gum inflammation, they may be to hormonal changes and failures. Gingivitis can be a manifestation of any disease of internal organ systems.

Symptoms that cause inflammation of the gums, typically the following:

  • inflammation of the lining of the gums;
  • swelling;
  • bright intensity contour;
  • bleeding;
  • soreness;
  • sensitivity;
  • difficulty swallowing and chewing;
  • severe redness.

If you experience the first symptoms of gingivitis, you should immediately contact your dentist for help.


Defeat the shell of the oral mucosa or the skin of the lips. Usually develops when injury and cracking of the lips. The reasons lie in temperature – either too cold or a lot of UV rays.

The types of cheilitis are the following:

Which restores the infection

Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниPeriodically manifests itself in children of small age. Call it staphylococci or fungi. The causes of the disease most often are:

  • improper diet with low content of Riboflavin;
  • infection affecting the oral cavity and nasopharynx;
  • malocclusion and other changes.

The patient in this case, it will complain that it is difficult to open mouth – causes pain. Painful sensations arise because of cracks in the corners of the mouth, which enters infection. The cracks can spread over the surrounding areas: the chin, the skin around the mouth.


This form affects the red border of the lips during long periods of sunlight. There are 2 forms of this cheilitis:

  • exudative. Manifested with the appearance of edema, hyperemia. Occur ulcerative vesicles, erosion and cracks;
  • dry. The border becomes bright red and covered with white scales. If you remove them, they will appear again.

Recurrent acts usually occur in the warm season: in the spring and summer.


The disease affects only the lower lip. Symptoms of the following: there is swelling, redness, salivary glands are inflamed and from them pus. Inflammation you can easily feel.


Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниAppears in the absence of vitamin b (Riboflavin). In this form the mucous membrane pale, the border of the lips becomes bright red, the lips crack and bleed, there are exudative manifestations, the shell begins to slushayutsya. The skin around the mouth, too, is suffering: the corners of the mouth covered with erosion, and form a crust on them yellow. May cause burning in the mouth and pain when closing the jaws.


Usually occurs in the elderly and causes redness of the lips, peeling , swelling and cracking. This form is very similar to eczema.


Catarrhal cheilitis occurs under the influence of various environmental factors and manifests itself as inflammation labial border. Hyperemia occurs, which is compounded over time, erosions and ulcers. Also, this form heylita is accompanied by swelling and peeling of the skin.

Purulent glandular (cheilitis the Belec — win)

Occurs only with recurrences, affecting the salivary glands. They form chronic ulceration and erosion, and labial glands are infected the infection.


Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниIf it is too frequent and uncontrolled administration of penicillin may develop a form of cheilitis. Lip rim swells and may even begin to separate from the lips. The infection is transferred into the oral cavity and affects the lining. The patient feels severe burning in the sky and the inner sides of the cheeks and on the tongue.

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Thyroid complicates the treatment of this form heylita. Exudative form is defined by enlarged lips. Mouth open, as the pain does not allow them to close to the end. Commonly affects the mucosa of the lips. The dry form is caused by hyperemia, in which there are transparent flakes of skin, removing which have red flesh from the affected areas. Proceeds this form is usually chronic.


Caused due to various allergies. Call it anything – up to lipstick. The lip is hyperemic, swollen, the skin is easily separated, and these places are formed by erosion and ulceration. Then, in their places there are cracks and scabs.

Treatment of cheilitis

Заболевание слизистой оболочки полости рта: поражение и болезниThe dentist should treat the patient primarily based on the fact that he needs to close his mouth. They should close up the line keima upper and lower lips, which should be the same.

In the treatment of cheilitis, it is required to do the following things:

  • to normalize breathing through the nose. If the patient has the habit of breathing through the mouth, it urgently need to get rid of;
  • the dentist should help the patient to correct the bite and its anomalies;
  • circular muscle of the mouth should work fine, so the doctors prescribed chemotherapy. It fully restores its health.

Usually the problem lies in the type of breathing, oral or nasal. Therefore, the patient first of all you need to watch how he breathes. With such observations you can own to get rid of the disease.

Disease prevention

Dentists recommend following these rules to help you avoid diseases of the oral cavity:

  • you need time to treat the teeth and to constantly visit the dentist for preventive purposes;
  • to comply with all hygiene measures that will lead to the oral cavity in order;
  • try to avoid injury of the mucous membrane of the cold, hot and various external factors;
  • to maintain a healthy diet – eat right;
  • try to maintain a health immune system vitamin;
  • To exclude the possibility of contact with objects to which you are allergic.

Dental clinics nowadays offer a wide range of services and treat all diseases that are known to doctors. You can learn about your disease with methods of diagnosis. Choose only the clinic in which you believe, and do not spare money, because when complications may require more serious help. Sometimes require fairly complex and expensive methods of diagnosis and treatment, but the mucosa must be healthy and then you feel fine.

In addition, it is necessary to find the underlying causes of diseases of the mucosa related to the internal organs. Then will need assistance from several doctors.