Gingivitis catarrhal, hypertrophic and ulcerative treatment
Is called gingivitis inflammatory disease of the gums that affects the marginal part of the mucosa adjacent to the teeth and the interdental papillae. They are sick mostly children and young people up to 35 years. In later years found chronic form of the disease.
The disease is of the following types:
- Hypertrophic gingivitis.
- Catarrhal gingivitis.
- Ulcerative gingivitis.
- Atrophic gingivitis.
- Gingivitis Vincent.
The catarrhal form of the disease
The disease in the acute stage is catarrhal gingivitis, the treatment is quick, without relapses. This form is found most often. Symptoms are pronounced.
The main symptoms
- Catarrhal gingivitis is characterized by redness and swelling of the mucous membranes, pain during palpation.
- Formation of Tartar and plaque.
- Bleeding gums.
- Itching and burning in the gums.
- An unpleasant taste and odor in the mouth.
- Can increase the body temperature.
At the advanced stage of catarrhal gingivitis becomes chronic. The disease is sluggish, has almost no external manifestations, periodically escalates. Chronic catarrhal gingivitis is manifested by bleeding gums when brushing, slight redness of the mucous membrane, swelling of the interdental papillae, there is a sense of fullness in the gums.
Depending on the extent of destruction of the gums catarrhal gingivitis is:
- Localized. Shocked about 1/3 of the teeth.
- Generalized. The inflammatory process spread to the entire gingiva.
Vary 3 the steppes of severity of the disease:
- Easy. Affected only the interdental papillae.
- Catarrhal gingivitis of moderate severity. The inflammatory process affects the marginal (free) gingivae.
- Heavy. There is a loss of the entire alveolar process.
The treatment begins with professional cleaning of plaque and hard deposits. To neutralize the bacteria perform antiseptic rinse. Usually these measures are enough if the inflammation persists, prescribe anti-inflammatory therapy.
Chronic catarrhal gingivitis cure treatment gingival salicylic acid, physiotherapeutic procedures (electrophoresis, massage the gums). Assigned a diet that excludes meals, irritating mucous membranes. It is recommended in the diet to add foods with a high content of vitamin A, b, C, E.
Hypertrophic gingivitis is characterized by proliferation of the connective tissue of the mucous membranes, relief of the gingival margin is deformed to increase the interdental papillae, the formation of false periodontal pockets, which can half close the crown.
To provoke the hypertrophic gingivitis acute may the treatment of epilepsy.
- Edematous ulcerative gingivitis (granulomatous). The gums are hyperemic, bleed, dark red or bluish in color, have a glossy sheen, and affected a considerable part of the teeth. Edematous hypertrophic gingivitis is easily treatable with medication.
- And fibrous. The gums are compacted, painful, greatly increased in volume, bumpy surface. No bleeding, pain and redness. Hypertrophic gingivitis in the fibrous stage is not amenable to drug therapy, the treatment is carried out surgically.
Hypertrophic gingivitis has 3 stages:
- Easy. Swollen gums closes the third part of the crown.
- Average. Closed half of the dental crown.
- Heavy. Inflamed gums tooth closes more than½.
Hypertrophic gingivitis are diagnosed with the indicators of dental indices, carried out morphological studies of the gums, if necessary, take a biopsy (test for cancer cells).
Treatment of hypertrophic gingivitis consists of antibiotic therapy, sclero, physiotherapy. Apply the effects of high frequency currents on papillae, excised the diseased membranes to eliminate gum pockets. First of all remove the Tartar. Spend processing of the oral cavity by solutions of antiseptic, make the application of chlorophyllin, propolis.
Hypertrophic gingivitis is also treated with injections of glucose, calcium gluconate, ethyl alcohol in the interdental papillae. Hormonal ointments relieve swelling and inflammation.
Ulcerative necrotic gingivostomatit Vincent is accompanied by the expression and necrosis of the gum tissue. The main causes of the disease are vitamin deficiencies, chronic blood diseases, venereal diseases, AIDS, tuberculosis, cancer tumors, anaerobic microflora, which is present in the cavities of carious affected teeth. The disease most commonly affects young people.
Ulcerative necrotic gingivostomatit has a short incubation period. The next prodormal stage patients note fever, the gums become inflamed, sore, itchy. During the height of the disease the temperature rises to 38 — 39, the gums loose, wounded, is nekrotizirovannye mucous membranes of the mouth.
When the diagnosis is important to exclude syphilis, HIV. Carried out oral examination, patient interviews. Doing a clinical blood.
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis behalf of Vincent medicated. First of all, relieve pain and intoxication of the organism. Antiseptic solutions to clean plaque from the gums and mucous membranes. Necrotic areas are treated with proteolytic enzymes: chymotrypsin, terrilitin. You can use ointment that contains enzymes.
Be sure to remove hard plaque. Treat carious teeth. One of the reasons that causes ulcerative necrotic gingivostomatit is hypovitaminosis, therefore, assigned to vitamin.
In the anaerobic microflora acts Metronidazole, Tinidazole. To exfoliate the keratinized areas of the gums use agent tools: salicylic acid, sulfur, resorcinol.
If ulcers have formed in the throat and on the tonsils ulcerative-necrotic gingivostomatitis treated with a solution of Interferon. Vehicle is instilled in the affected areas.
Acute ulcerative gingivitis can evolve into a chronic phase if untreated. Without therapy there is resorption of the jaw bone, deposited gums, periodontitis develops. With timely treatment of acute ulcerative gingivitis goes through 5 – 6 days, chronic longer.
The disease is manifested by reduction of the volume of the gums. Occurs atrophy of the interdental papillae and the gingival margin. Gradually become bare the neck of the teeth, increased tooth sensitivity to hot and cold. Signs of inflammation are mild. Pink gums, bleed.
Launched atrophic gingivitis may develop into periodontitis (inflammation of tissues surrounding the tooth). Therefore, therapy should be started as early as possible, otherwise you can lose healthy teeth.
Atrophic gingivitis is the last stage of the chronic form of the disease. Causes: chronic systemic disease, Smoking, metabolic disorders, hormonal adolescents, pregnant women, the elderly.
Atrophic gingivitis has two forms:
- Limited. Is the exposure of cervical and roots in the region of 2 — 3 teeth. The most striking are the front incisors, canines, small indigenous units.
- Generalized. Disappear interdental papillae, there are gaps between the teeth, decreases the volume of the gingival margin.
Treatment of the atrophic form of the disease and spend conservative or surgical. When drug therapy after removal of Tartar, spend processing of the mucous membranes with a solution of hydrogen peroxide. Apply an application of therapeutic plant oils. Additionally prescribe antibiotics, physiotherapy, vitamin therapy.
If conservative treatment fails, surgical intervention is carried out. Gingivoplasty method allows you to replace the missing portions of the gums adjacent healthy shells.