Papillomatosis of the larynx: symptoms and treatment in children
Papillomatosis of the larynx is part of the diseases that are caused by HPV human papillomavirus. This pathological process mostly begins to develop in children in the period up to 5 years and males of middle age group. Pretty rare, but still there are options for congenital papillomatosis ENT. For the reason that deep-throat papilloma can cause very serious complications, this type of disease requires special attention.
What is the disease
The papilloma formed on the mucous surface of the throat – a kind of benign tumor type that grow from a transition or a flat epithelial tissue. Education rises above the mucous membrane, something like a nipple, krovoobraschenie which is a couple of vessels. Fresh papillomas usually pink in color due to the presence of large amounts of capillaries and blood vessels, but more long-standing education is covered by fairly dense connective tissue, thereby have a dirty gray color.
When the patient gets the diagnosis of papillomatosis of the larynx, then such tumors on the lining there are several, after all, their education is primarily on the character of the group. Not often papilloma large size, otherwise called a solitary papilloma of the larynx. Such papillomas are located not only in the larynx but also on the surface of the mouth, trachea, inner side of lips.
Generally papillomatosis of the larynx are quite common, and not among all the malignant neoplastic disease is second only to papillose. As a rule, papillomatosis of larynx in children is recurrent form, often quantitatively, in spite of the increasing rate of the treatment process.
The timing and symptoms of the development of laryngeal papillomatosis classify it as follows:
- Juvenile – is found exclusively in the pediatric age category;
- Recurrent respiratory – the main period for development is the adult age.
Given the degree distribution has a number of forms of the disease:
- Diffuse – there is a formation of papillomas from both sides of the laryngeal surface, closure of the glottis with more than 50%;
- Local – the larynx is affected formations with either one hand or papillomas are common in a small area of mucous membrane, closes the glottis by about 30%;
- Obliterating the degree of education to completely block the glottis.
The causes of the disease
The source of this disease is the human papilloma virus.
Really correct the cause of the outbreak of the disease could only be determined after the advent of electron microscopes. Then in the affected cell nucleus and was detected with HPV. Viral cells 11 of the type most often found in children, but viral cells 6 considered a main cause of disease in the adult. There is also a version that some groups of people most susceptible to developing this disease. That is why laryngeal papillomatosis is not formed in any person. But men’s levels of the hormone androgen contributes to infection of the body of a strong half of mankind.
Tumors in the laryngeal region begin to form immediately after penetration of the pathogen into the body, and accompanying irritation helps the full manifestation of the disease. The most common route of infection for adult sexual, mainly in the genital or oral interaction. The child is able to papillomatosis of the larynx in utero through the placental exchange, and in the birth process.
Circumstances able to affect the infection of the disease and its spread:
- Periodic radiation exposure of the body;
- Persistent inflammatory disease of the respiratory system;
- The influence of ultraviolet rays;
- Intoxication chemical substances;
- Many bad habits;
- Frequent allergic reactions;
- Disease on the background of different kind of herpes lesions;
- Reduced immune system, and disease that are directly associated with immunodeficiency;
- Hormonal imbalance and thyroid disease;
- The deformation of the throat due to contact with foreign bodies;
- The impossibility of breastfeeding in the newborn.
Scientists determined that the presence of the virus in humans may not always lead to laryngeal papillomatosis. Often, this type of virus absolutely does not manifest itself throughout the life cycle. But many actively progressing disease after the latent period.
Symptoms of the disease
To determine the disease can be some obvious signs:
The most important symptom in laryngeal papillomatosis can be attributed to this disruption of the process of breathing, and hoarseness. But the danger of this disease lies in the sufficiently frequent recurrence which gradually lead to stenosis of the larynx, distribution of formations on the surface of the bronchi and trachea, therefore, there is a risk of malignization or pulmonary insufficiency.
In General, the symptoms if papilloma of the larynx depend on the age category of the person. For example, young children in most cases, register the diffuse form of the disease, have children slightly older infant, the placement of the entities is limited, and the adult papillomas are localized on the vocal folds.
Besides the fact that the patient hepnet voice, the kids may appear shortness of breath, which quickly occurs when you perform physical exercises, plus cause interruptions in breathing. If not to begin treatment of the disease may appear complications such as stridor, spasms of the larynx, chronic dyspnea, and if not, and if complications are not taken, the inevitable death.
The healing process
Often not the location, its diagnosis and treatment from the experts takes a bit of time. Sometimes missing a simple inspection, to note the pronounced formation of papillomas of the mucous membranes. In different periods of the disease the color of the papillary growths varies from whitish to dark brown, with occasional pink or purple-red.
Treatment during laryngeal papillomatosis is quite difficult and it is important to follow a certain sequence of activities. The doctor usually pre-defines necessary goals for successful treatment:
- Treatment of stenosis of the Airways;
- A significant decrease in the number of periodic recurrence of the disease;
- To reverse the spread of papillomas;
- The return of normal speech and voice of the patient.
In this disease it is not always necessary hospitalization of the patient, it is required only in cases surgical treatment. Nowadays doctors widely used for the treatment method photodynamically therapy that allows not to use surgery and medication. The treatment of papillomas drugs needed after surgery, because after surgery there is often laryngitis.
In such a situation it is important as quickly as possible to eliminate any inflammation to rapidly carry out the treatment of the disease. To achieve this goal is assigned to antiviral therapy, and drugs that stimulate development of the immune system.
Prevention includes immediate warning condition, which can contribute to the beginning of the development of papillomatosis. The most important is the prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory tract in acute or chronic form. Required full nose breathing, timely therapy of inflammatory processes in the sinuses, chronic tonsillitis and laryngitis; hygiene of the nasal cavity. Extremely important in the prevention of certain diseases: measles, whooping cough, influenza, and others. You need to exercise and harden.
To diagnose the disease can be under examination, the otolaryngologist with long-term acute forms of inflammation of the respiratory tract. If hoarseness of voice has a protracted nature with accompanying shortness of breath – people should be alerted for possible papillomatosis.
Children suffering from papilloma of the larynx are obliged to visit an ENT doctor about 1 time in 3 months.