Periodontitis: symptoms and treatment
Periodontitis – inflammation of the periodontium – the tissues surrounding and holding the tooth. The teamwork of these tissues provides a number of functions: support, plastic, shock-absorbing, nourishing, protective function and regulation of reflexes.
Classification of periodontitis based on the severity, stage of the disease and localization of inflammation. According to the severity of the pathological process distinguish between mild, moderate and severe form. At the stage of development – acute and chronic. At the location of localized and generalized version.
In this disease, as periodontitis symptoms develop rapidly, is characterized by the fracture processes in bones and ligaments.
The more timely treatment for medical help, the greater the chance of a full recovery. So what is periodontitis and how can it be treated?
The symptoms of periodontitis
From the stages and forms of periodontal disease depend on its symptoms and treatment. The most common generalized type of the disease with an acute course. There is a steady increase symptoms, without proper intervention leading to degradation of bone tissue and loss of teeth. When the local inflammation develops the same stage, but in a limited area.
Faster and easier to treat periodontal tissues in the early stage of the disease. Its manifestations include:
- the appearance of soft plaque;
- chronic gingivitis;
- in the picture of the x – ray foci of destruction in the bone tissue of the alveolar process.
If the initial stage is missed, then the mild stage of the disease:
- deposits on the teeth become more visible;
- bleeding gums is enhanced;
- inflammation and redness of the gingival margin, there may be some cyanosis;
- the picture shows the x-ray – destruction of bone tissue up to the fourth part of the length of the root;
- the increase in tooth mobility, partial exposure of roots;
- formed periodontal pockets (4 mm) filled with pus.
The average stage of the disease manifested by the following features:
- increased mobility of teeth;
- a growing number of periodontal pockets, their depth and the volume of secreted fluid;
- bone destruction is up to half the length of the root;
- hipertrofiada the gums, tooth roots exposed by almost a third;
- may develop abscesses in the gum tissue;
- the dentition starts to deform;
- developing asthenia.
Severe disease has the following symptoms:
- an even greater increase in the number of periodontal pockets and their depth is more than 7-8 mm;
- severe bone resorption, the root is often completely laid bare;
- strongly expressed abscesses, bleeding and pain;
- the high mobility of the teeth, leading to their own loss;
- a marked deterioration of General health.
Thus, if left untreated periodontitis, then its development will lead to tooth loss, bone destruction and minnewawa connection.
Periodontitis and periodontal disease: the differences
Periodontal disease – periodontal disease appears to atrophic processes in the dental cells of the alveolar processes. Inflammation is not typical, but can occur when infected tissues.
Periodontitis and periodontal disease have differences, despite the similarity of names and General localization of the pathological process. An obligatory symptom of periodontitis – inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth. This disease progresses rapidly and after a couple of years after it began, the man risks losing a significant number of teeth. For periodontal disease the inflammation is not typical, the development of the disease is slow and can occur over several decades. Also with periodontitis rarely, bleeding gums, teeth start to wobble much later, no swelling of the soft tissues.
Diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis
In this disease, as periodontitis treatment determined by the physician, but only after a series of diagnostic procedures. Mandatory are the results of a blood test, x-ray of the jaw and the data of computer tomography. In some cases Doppler. After all, the doctor assesses the degree of destruction of bone tissue and characteristics of the dentition. After analyzing the results, it determines how to most effectively treat periodontitis. The General principle is: the earlier a patient appealed for help, the greater the chance of healing with conservative methods. In advanced cases, to avoid surgery.
If you select the conservative method, first the doctor removes deposits on the teeth using special tools and equipment. Then treats caries, pulpitis, remove teeth that can not be disinfected, sets of dentures. In conclusion, the expert assigns a number of drugs aimed at removing the inflammation and destruction of pathogenic microflora: rinse, application gel, antibiotics and the use of specialized toothpastes for brushing your teeth.
In addition to these procedures may be assigned to physiotherapy. Only a comprehensive approach will give a positive result. The more effective to treat periodontitis your doctor will recommend, given the characteristics of the specific clinical case.
How to treat later stages of periodontitis? With the help of surgical intervention. There are several ways of holding it:
- curettage of periodontal pockets, allowing to remove the deposits under the gums to remove pockets;
- flap surgery is a cutting site of the gingival tissue, clean the tooth surface and periodontal pockets;
- gingivectomy – the removal of the edge zones of the gums after cleansing and reduce the pockets.
In severe cases of periodontal disease surgical treatment method is the only thing that can remove periodontal pockets, stabilize periodontal tissues, eliminate tooth mobility.
The reasons for the development of periodontitis and prevention
Acute periodontitis occurs after injuries caused by burns, mechanical injuries. In addition, the acute periodontitis can be a complication of the acute form of ulcerative-necrotic gingivitis.
Chronic localized periodontitis provoked by the following factors:
- caries located on the sides of the tooth;
- injury to the soft tissues of the gums as a result of injury or malocclusion;
- supercontact because of the seals, expressed in the increase in the load on the gums, and improper form of the seal;
- poorly executed prosthetics when mismatched crowns and dentures hurt the gums.
Generalized inflammation in periodontitis occurs for the following reasons:
- inadequate or incorrect oral hygiene;
- violation of metabolism in periodontal tissues;
- malocclusion, or the location of individual teeth;
- lack of functional load on the jaw;
- the effect of chemicals and elevated levels of radiation.
For the prevention of periodontal disease requires regular visits to the dentist, proper daily care of the oral cavity, a balanced diet, eating fibrous foods (fresh fruits and vegetables). It is important to strengthen the immune system through physical activity, fresh air, hardening.