The structure of the oral cavity of the person
Due to its structure, the oral cavity assists in digestion and it is the initial processing of food. In her food crushed, moistened and becomes the desired temperature.
The oral cavity consists of the following parts:
- The threshold mouth. Outside it includes cheeks and lips, and the inside of the teeth;
- The inner part of the mouth. On top it covers the sky, and around the teeth. At the bottom of the cavity is the tongue.
In addition, not counting the outer part of the cheeks and lips, the whole mouth is covered with a layer of mucous membrane.
The structure of the lips
When food enters the mouth, it passes through the lips. They are skin-muscle fold and have such structure:
- A skin part. She is on the outside and consists of epithelium prone to actinic. This part is glands, which is designed to generate sweat.
- The intermediate part. This area is covered by a skin layer and cornification occurs here is that the external site. Usually the color of this part is pink, and closer to the mucosa visible red border. In addition, this area has many blood vessels and nerves. All this ensures high sensitivity;
- Mucous part. It is located in the inner area of the lips. Consists of squamous epithelium and has no tendency to keratinization.
As for the cheek, they are two sides of a human face. The main component of them is a muscle, over which is a layer of skin, and inside is his fat body.
The structure of the teeth
The main function of teeth is chewing of food. They break down the food to facilitate the digestive process. In the mouth of any adult there are some kinds of teeth:
- The incisors are the four teeth that are in front and are used to bite off large pieces of food;
- Canines are used to tear food into small pieces. The people they are called «eye teeth», but with vision they are not connected;
- Molars (large and small). With them, the food is completely ground.
It is this structure of the teeth in the mouth of man distinguishes him from other living beings. People are able to eat as meat and plants, making them omnivores.
All the teeth are covered with a layer of enamel, which is devoid of sensitivity due to the lack of receptors for this meeting. In addition, it is the hardest tissue in the human body and the reason is that 97% of its non — organic substances and only 3% of water. The main element in the composition of the enamel is a crystal hydroxyapatite, but in addition to them, also there is magnesium, fluorine and carbohydrate. Beneath it is the dentin, it is quite hard and looks like bone. This is followed by the pulp, which contains nerves and blood vessels.
Despite the fact that enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, but over time it may becomes thinner. When the process of processing food in the mouth appear acid that can damage it. If you do not keep track of the abrasion of enamel, the further will begin to break down the dentin, followed by and soft core. If the damage reaches the pulp, it will cause a lot of pain, so you should not forget about oral hygiene and at least 2 times a year to visit the dentist.
Functions and structure of language
The language consists of muscle tissue in a healthy person it has a pink color. On its surface there are special buds responsible for the perception of taste, and most of them around the edges.
Therefore, in this part of the food is felt most strongly. The language adsorbed to a variety of harmful substances, thus, the oral cavity plays an important role in digestion. All these unwanted organisms accumulate it in the form of plaque. Therefore, it is recommended to periodically clean the surface of the tongue to prevent the appearance of infections and disgusting smell.
Although the root of the tongue and has taste buds, but the base of it is the lymphoid tissue called the amygdala. She plays no role in digestion, but it has another important function. Tonsils are protected and do not allow the penetration of various harmful microorganisms, because of which a person can get sick.
Features of the sky and its structure
The sky covers the top of the mouth and is divided into two types:
Mucosa entirely connected with solid air, and then through soft smoothly makes the transition to the alveolar processes thus forming gums.
The front has a couple of special formations, which are called palatal alveolus. For people they do not really perform any function in swallowing food, but indispensable for the animals. In addition, the sky serves as a barrier of the oral cavity from the nasopharynx, and it exercised this function with a soft tongue. He closes the passage into the nasopharynx at the time of receipt of food.
The specifics of the mucosa
Mucous covers almost the entire cavity of the mouth and protects it from the external environment. While she has excellent ability to regenerate. In addition, the mucous membrane has good resistance to chemical and mechanical influences and to temperature.
On the cheeks, lips, and bottom of the mouth it slips in the crease, and the top is firmly located in the bone parts. The most important responsibilities of the mucosa in the mouth area are:
- The protection function. The structure of the human oral cavity is far from ideal, and there are many germs and viruses, but that the mucous membrane of the stops and do not let them inside;
- The function is responsible for perception of sensations. It says to the body, if there is something wrong when there is a meal. In the mucosa there are numerous receptors that are responsible for sensation (pain, taste, heat);
- A function of suction. It helps the body to absorb the mineral and protein compounds, these include and medicines.
The initial stage of digestion
Since the oral cavity begins digestion. In it the food is processed mechanically crushed and moistened in a suitable swallowing a lump. After the food ball is treated chemically by enzymes located in saliva, and it already stands out from special glands. Then the already prepared food goes into the esophagus, for further processing.
As for the glands, they mouth a lot (small ones), but only three large:
- The parotid.
Thus, due to the peculiarities of the structure of the mouth, the food passes the initial processing stage.