What is gingivitis: symptoms of acute and chronic forms, prevention

Gingivitis is a gum inflammation, but it is important to know that it is a disease, which, in contrast to periodontitis, affects only the regional area of the gums and interdental papillae. The pathological process surface, does not destroy bone, and does not lead to the formation of periodontal pockets.

This is a fairly common disease that is most exposed to teenagers and pregnant women because of unstable hormonal background of these groups. Progresses without treatment in chronic gingivitis leads to more serious pathologies, such as periodontitis.

The causes of gingivitis

Gingivitis causes inflammation of which edge zones of the gums in adults may be different. It can occur under the influence of internal and external factors. The first group includes:

  • Что такое гингивит: симптомы острой и хронической формы, профилактикаproizvoditsa teeth, which injure the gums;
  • malocclusion;
  • a deficiency of vitamins and minerals;
  • long-term use of oral contraceptives;
  • gastrointestinal disease;
  • disorders in the immune system.

External causes that can lead to gingivitis is:

  • mechanical injuries of the teeth and gums;
  • aggressive chemical exposure (including tobacco smoke);
  • infectious lesions of the gingival tissues.

Gingivitis is a disease developing due to external influences, often causes daily habits: Smoking, poor implementation of hygiene procedures, breath through your mouth.

The form of the disease and symptoms

Gingivitis manifests itself differently, classification of gingivitis is made on several bases: type of flow, the form of manifestation, extent and severity.

The types of flow are distinguished:

  • Что такое гингивит: симптомы острой и хронической формы, профилактикаacute gingivitis – pathology, symptoms which appear suddenly and develop very quickly;
  • chronic gingivitis is slow-flowing variant of the disease, symptoms of which appear gradually;
  • recurrent chronic gingivitis – acute stage with signs of increasing illness;
  • remission – a period when all the symptoms completely relieved.

Classification on the basis of the clinical picture of gingivitis:

  • The catarrhal form. Manifested symptoms of inflammation – swelling and hyperemia of the edge zones of gums and papillae between the teeth. Complaints of pain, as a rule, no, the only thing I notice patients are bleeding when brushing your teeth and chewing of solid food.
  • Ulcerative-necrotic form. Accompanied by the appearance of ulcers and necrotic areas of the gums, fever and swollen lymph nodes. Characterized by complaints of itching in the interdental papillae, severe pain, increased salivation.
  • The hypertrophic form. Is characterized by a significant increase in the volume of tissue of the gums, it is bleeding and hardness. Sometimes several teeth change their position, they are growing stone, especially in the sprawling covered by fabric parts. Patients complain of severe pain, moderate bleeding.
  • Atrophic form. Manifested by reduction of gingival tissue, thinning them, which are exposed dental necks and even the roots. This form often leads to periodontitis. Characterized by complaints of increased sensitivity to temperature changes, Что такое гингивит: симптомы острой и хронической формы, профилактикаmechanical stress, eat sweets etc.
  • Desquamative form. Accompanied by intense hyperemia and a convergence of the epithelial layer of the mucosa with the formation of erosive and ulcerative lesions, vesicles. Complaints of pain, swelling, and bleeding gums.
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    The symptoms of gingivitis to the various forms in children and adults may be distributed throughout the gum (generalized type) or may arise only in certain areas (local type).

    Signs of gingivitis can be mild, moderate or severe.

    The General scheme of therapy

    As gingivitis develops due to dental plaque and soft microbial plaque, therapy primarily involves the removal of the cause of the inflammatory process. So rinse oral cavity with antiseptic solutions, the use of local anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics – all of these methods will bring only temporary relief. Despite the fact that it will take all of the symptoms, gingivitis will manifest themselves as soon as they discontinued treatment measures.

    To really cure disease it is necessary to remove all dental deposits, appealed for help to the dentist. And only after that to treat at home.

    For all types of gingivitis, there is a General scheme, additional activities are required for ulcerous-necrotic and hypertrophic forms. This scheme consists of several stages:

    Elimination of Tartar

    Что такое гингивит: симптомы острой и хронической формы, профилактикаAnd acute and chronic gingivitis can be eliminated only when cleaning the teeth from mineralized deposits this point, the doctor often performs with the help of ultrasonic equipment. The result of such exposure the surface becomes rough because it can accumulate particles of mineralized and soft tissue. To resolve the problem, the doctor polishes the teeth with brushes and a special paste-like preparations.

    In light of the severity of inflammation and a small amount of sediment, the doctor may clean and Polish teeth during a single appointment. When the inflammatory processes are vastly common and the stone is not only on the surface but also under the gums, only ultrasonic cleaning may require several visits. Once deposits are removed, inflammation is significantly reduced.

    Anti-inflammatory activities

    After the procedure of ultrasonic cleaning, the doctor prescribes therapy to eliminate the remaining inflammation. Acute gingivitis require particularly careful treatment at this stage.

    Inflammation can home:

    • Что такое гингивит: симптомы острой и хронической формы, профилактикаantiseptic mouthwashes (Chlorhexidine Bigluconate, Miramistina, Furatsilina);
    • using local anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., Holisal-gel Metrogyl Denta, Kamistad);
    • the use of therapeutic toothpastes (Parodontax Madrid, etc.).
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    The course of medical procedures at home – 10 days. Every morning, after meals and hygiene procedures need to rinse my mouth with antiseptic 1 minute. Then dry gums with gauze, a finger, apply an anti-inflammatory agent on the gingival side of the lips and tongue. Following these procedures will not have 3 hours. To repeat them in the evening before bed.

    Sanitation of the oral cavity

    In parallel with home care after ultrasonic cleaning need to carry out a treatment procedure, eliminating all the infections and restore the normal functioning of the dentition. It will reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease.

    Uncomplicated acute gingivitis with proper care takes place in a week, chronic – need intensive and longer treatment. If you neglect the treatment, there is a high risk of developing periodontitis and tooth loss.


    The above stages conservative therapy apply to all forms of the disease. But ulcerous-necrotic and hypertrophic gingivitis require surgical intervention.

    Что такое гингивит: симптомы острой и хронической формы, профилактикаUlcerative-necrotic gingivitis is a gum disease where the infection of the mouth is so pronounced that the immune system is not able to neutralize the toxins secreted by the bacteria. This causes necrosis (death) of gingival tissues. The therapy includes not only conservative methods, but prompt removal of dead tissues, intensive antibiotic therapy, detoxification and rejuvenating the mucosa of the event. A significant part of the procedures performed in the dentist’s office, especially if there is acute gingivitis, the symptoms of which are obvious.

    Another form of gingivitis in which insufficiently conservative methods of treatment – hypertrophic. The causes are often endocrine disorders, toxemia of pregnancy, malocclusion and the impact of traumatic edges of fillings and crowns. Sometimes the overgrowth of gum tissue leads to chronic catarrhal gingivitis. Getting rid of hypertrophic gingivitis depends on what his form is revealed: fibrous or edematous.

    Edematous hypertrophic gingivitis usually develops due to hormonal changes and is manifested generalizovannoe – all or almost all the gum.

    Swelling are aggravated by the presence of Tartar and plaque. Deliverance begins with ultrasonic cleansing tooth surfaces and anti-inflammatory treatments. If these treatment options did not achieve a positive result, it is assigned a sclerosing solution into the swollen papillae. Injection put after anesthesia. Each contains 0.2 ml of a preparation consisting of a mixture of glucose, magnesium sulfate and calcium chloride. The procedure is carried out 3-4 times a day or two.

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    Fibrous hypertrophic gingivitis can develop due to hormonal changes, and prolonged chronic catarrhal forms of the disease. Characterized by local overgrowth of gum tissue near the teeth. Hypertrophy may occur after injury due to Что такое гингивит: симптомы острой и хронической формы, профилактикаthe overhanging edges of fillings or crowns. In this case, the locality will be limited to 1 or 2 teeth. The therapy begins with detection of traumatic factors and their elimination. Then, a procedure of ultrasonic cleaning and anti-inflammatory therapy. In addition, you may need excision of the gums during surgery. After this procedure, you must bandage with hydrocortisone ointment and other similar drugs.

    Preventive measures

    Primary prevention of gingivitis is in compliance with the rules of individual hygiene of the oral cavity. They include regular cleaning of the teeth. Need to know how to choose the right toothbrush and toothpaste which cleansing technique to use. These daily treatments should not cause injury to the gums, so brush need hard to measure.
    It is equally important to clean the surface of the tongue and cheeks, as they accumulate large number of bacteria that can lead to the development of various diseases, including gingivitis. For these procedures, you can use a special brush, scraper or a regular teaspoon.

    Что такое гингивит: симптомы острой и хронической формы, профилактикаThe use of mouthwash for oral cavity will help to destroy most pathogens, even in those places which are inaccessible to brushes. These drugs have antiseptic, and in some cases anti-inflammatory effect.

    Interdental spaces especially require thorough cleansing that can be carried out with the help of dental floss or brushes. Through the use of such devices food debris will not accumulate in the interdental spaces, causing bacterial growth.

    To prevent such gum diseases as gingivitis, should regularly visit the dentist. Not only will he advise on the current status of the oral cavity, but also provide professional cleaning of teeth (if necessary). This procedure involves the use of ultrasound, polishing of teeth and treatment with antiseptic agents.

    All these simple activities will help prevent gingivitis and many other dental problems.