Cytomegalovirus in children: symptoms, treatment and prevention

Hello, dear readers. Cytomegalovirus in children occurs in every second case, and in adults almost all. Why did we not notice this disease?

The fact that it develops without symptoms and does not harm an adult with a standard immune system. But the child in certain circumstances, the disease can hurt.

Let’s examine the process of development of this disease in children read more, to know what we may encounter.

What constitutes such a disease?

Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактика

Let’s start with the definition of «cytomegalovirus infectious pathology». What is it? It is a disease related to erisipela provoked by herpesvirus 5. The causative agent is very picky — develops only under certain circumstances and only in specific cells.

For the development of the virus has almost a complete lack of immunity in the host, what can happen under certain circumstances. During the development of the disease severe complications arise, violation of the activity of the Central nervous system and human body in General.

In the adult, the immune system may not weaken just. But babies, especially newborns, have immature weak immune system, so they are often insidious complications of the infection.

Scientists conducted a study and were shocked by the findings: the pathogen has almost 100% of people aged 45 years. Most infected with them in childhood and others in adulthood. How is this invisible disease?

How do you get infected?

You can become infected only from the human host. Children become infected under different circumstances. From the method of infection and the age of the child depends directly on the course of the disease. There are three main methods of transmission of illness to children:

  • antenatal — the virus enters the child’s body through the placenta before birth;
  • intrapartum — infection occurs during childbirth;
  • postnatal — virus-provocateur attacks the small body after childbirth.

The most severe complications are in the first embodiment. For the implementation of such intrusion is necessary to the expectant mother became infected with the virus during pregnancy.

Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактикаThe malicious microorganism will be located in the uterine waters, where it can get into the digestive system and the lungs of the baby, and in other organs and tissues.

When infected by the mother during pregnancy, the probability of infecting the child reaches 50%.

If the mother was already a carrier of the virus, and he did not let know about itself in the course of pregnancy, the probability is reduced to 10%.

Why hidden infection can worsen the mother?

The fact is that during pregnancy the immune system naturally declines, as the body with strong immune defense to reject the fetus, taking him for a foreign object.

After the natural decrease of protective properties of the pathogen will begin to be active and reproduce. But even in this case, the probability of infecting the child minimal, as it receives maternal antibodies that are produced in the body to suppress viral disease.

The most dangerous is the primary infection of mother in 1st and 2nd trimesters. This infection often ends in miscarriage, and sudden and severe. In term 3, the child begins to take maternal antibodies, so the risk is reduced.

Infected children during childbirth happens only in 5% of all cases. Infection of children under one year of age may occur during breast feeding, but this happens only in 30% of cases.

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Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактикаIn addition, parents pass the virus to babies during close bodily contact. The causative agent of this pathology is transmitted in much the same way as any other types of girisindeki.

Most people are infected at the age from 3 years to 5 years. Why, you ask?

At this age children begin to attend preschool educational institutions, which are actively in contact with other children and adults.

The pathogen can move from one person to another along with various bodily fluids — saliva, urine, sputum from the lungs, blood, etc.

Infection occurs when talking with sneezing or coughing person when shaking hands through wounds in the skin, failure of personal hygiene.

New media would be especially dangerous to others within 2 years after infection. Then the virus is very much weaker and ceases to be active if the immune system of the child everything is normal.

How dangerous is the disease for children?

Since 3 years of age, the infection becomes relatively safe, occurs in nearly all asymptomatic, never develops into a complicated shape. After 5-6 years of activity of the child’s immune system increases up to the limit sufficient for the complete suppression of the virus.

If a child never happened, then most likely already and will not happen. But infected children under the age of 2-3 years, especially newborns, are at risk, as infection complications often develop in them.

Infection in newborns: what can happen?

Newborns are extremely vulnerable, so virus-provocateur usually attacks them. The consequences and symptoms will depend on the form of the infection, and form from it the following:

  • congenital (infected antenatal method);
  • acquired (the virus has entered the body during or after delivery).

Congenital form is the most dangerous and severe. She immediately gives complications, which additionally are the symptoms and can be the following:

Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактика

  • prematurity;
  • jaundice;
  • impaired swallowing and sucking;
  • the increase of the internal organs, often the spleen and liver;
  • cramps;
  • strabismus;
  • blindness and deafness;
  • microcephaly;
  • hydrocephalus.

In the newborn, which got infected after the light of the above complications may not be. In this case, two options are possible: complications and did not appear; complications occur in the first 10 years of his life in mental and physical retardation.

Acquired illness announces itself in 1-2 months after birth. While it may have these complications:

Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактика

  • excessive or, conversely, lack of activity;
  • mental and physical retardation;
  • cramps;
  • swollen lymph nodes and swelling of the salivary glands;
  • subcutaneous hemorrhage;
  • pulmonary inflammation;
  • pancreatitis;
  • hepatitis;
  • diabetes.
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Fortunately, acquired the disease gives much less complications than innate, and often immediately goes into a latent form — develop symptoms, not worried about the media throughout life.

How the disease will evolve in the future?

Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактикаThe child’s body after 5 years, as a rule, quickly to cope with the virus and inhibits it entirely. But the infection is not going away. Weakened the virus moving into the nerve endings there and fall asleep for a long time.

In the future with immunity, the infection may sleep indefinitely.

Some people may occasionally happen that a light aggravation in the form of mononucleosis syndrome: fatigue; fever; occurs runny nose and other symptoms of SARS.

Mononucleotide additional symptoms may be:

  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • increased salivation;
  • white patches on the gums and on the tongue.

Insidious disease differs from SARS in duration — the symptoms occur for 2 weeks or more. The specific treatment is not carried out, since the immune system must fight the disease.

If the immune system is permanently weakened, the infection will recur very often, and may cause such complications as bronchitis, pneumonia, inflammation of multiple lymph nodes constant weakness and fatigue.

In extremely rare cases is found atypical course of the disease. While there are skin symptoms in the form of small red rash, as well as other lesions, for example, malfunctions of the reproductive system, paralysis, hemolytic anemia, dropsy of the peritoneum, insufficient blood clotting.

Everyone should know whether he is a carrier of an insidious herpes virus. Want to test your child? If you want, be sure to leave the special tests.

Diagnosis of disease in children: how is it?

Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактика

Diagnosis is carried out in several ways:

  • Culture — virus isolation in cultures of human cells. This technique provides maximum accuracy and allows to identify even the virus, but has too high a price and held for a long time (over 2 weeks).
  • Zitostaticski — search characteristic giant cells in urine and saliva. This diagnostic method is rarely used because it is not sufficiently informative.
  • IFA — finding antibodies, which are allocated after the introduction of the infection in the blood. If the analysis shows immunoglobulin M (IgM), the primary infection is diagnosed. If the results are positive immunoglobulin G (IgG), there shall be a repeat examination after 2 weeks. The increase in the number G (IgG) indicates activation of the disease.
  • PCR is the most rapid and reliable method, but unfortunately, very expensive, which can be used to detect viral DNA and to determine the rate of reproduction of viral microorganisms.
  • After diagnosis, if necessary, treatment. By the way, if my child was diagnosed with the above disease, to be treated need not in all cases. Want to know when and what treatment can you prescribe?

    Protivostoyaniya therapy: who and what is assigned?

    Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактика

    If the disease does not manifest itself, it is not treated, so as to get rid of it completely impossible. This is all the guile of herpes viruses. When mononukleozom exacerbation treatment is also not possible.

    Ill only be assigned excessive drinking, with which it is possible to prevent the effects of intoxication. With other signs the body copes on its own.

    In what, then, cases of the disease require treatment? Only need to treat severe complications of congenital or acquired immediately after birth of the disease. How to treat the child in this case?

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    Treatment regimen and drugs appointed by the pediatrician based on many characteristics, such as type of complications, age and weight of the patient. The fight against virus 5 types carried out using a special antiviral medications:

    • Of ganciclovir;
    • Of interferon;
    • Foscarnet;
    • Of Panavir;
    • Cidofovir.

    In addition, a sick child with serious complications are appointed by modulating the immune system drugs — Megarotic, for example. All these medications have many side effects, so in any case do not use them yourself! Read more about the treatment described in the article disease, says pediatrician Komorowski in his video.

    Is it possible to protect the child from an insidious disease and its complications?

    Цитамегаловирус у детей: симптомы, методы лечения и профилактикаAt the present time, a vaccine with a preventive effect is in the development stage. Other specific prevention does not yet exist.

    If you do not yet have children, but really want to, then go seriously to the process of pregnancy planning.

    Pass all the tests and if they show the presence of an infection, you get the strengthening the immune system.

    If you have no immunity to the virus (shows an ELISA, and the lack of immunity means that you aren’t infected already), then get individual dishes, individual items and items for personal hygiene, and minimize contact with young children during pregnancy.

    The newborn child, who is infected, you can protect the following:

    • don’t let other people closely and frequently communicate with your child;
    • avoid contact with children under 6 years of age;
    • don’t let people kiss your baby, even if it’s close relatives;
    • follow these rules until 2-3 months of age the baby because at this age the immunity he will get stronger and in the future will be able to protect from severe complications of disease.

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    The author: Elena Smirnova (dermatologist)