Cytomegalovirus infection in children: what is important to know the parents
Good day to you, young parents! Have you heard about this disease, as CMV infection in children? About it there are a lot of scary rumors. Everything is so scary, really?
It turns out that the true children of cytomegalovirus infection is safe, but only until, until you have complications. Are you curious about what this disease is and in what cases it is complicated? The article will tell you about the cytomegalovirus in children everything.
What is a cytomegalovirus infection and how it appears in a child?
Cytomegalovirus is one of the members of the family of herpes viruses that are transmitted in various ways, including airborne.
After talking with a sick person, you probably catch this infection. Most likely, you already have in childhood, are simply not aware of the presence of the pathogen virus in the body.
How you can root and not guess about it? It’s very simple: cytomegalovirus disease is often asymptomatic. Therein lies its specificity.
Infection above infection occurs mainly in childhood. Many kids encounter it in the first year of life, and the rest (almost all) – of age before and after 5 years.
Kid can get from parents or from other people who will be with him, and also from children peers.
Pediatricians, including Komorowski, argue that the infected in childhood, even beneficial, as it serves as a kind of «inoculation» that will develop the child lifelong immunity to cytomegalovirus.
This infection can be compared to chicken pox, where you get sick just one time in my life. If chickenpox has visible symptoms, cytomegalovirus disease often develops without symptoms, but after it is in the child’s body also develop a strong lifelong immunity that protects against relapse in the future.
In healthy children, the disease gives symptoms only in 15% of cases. While its symptoms resemble mononucleosis infectious nature. Because of this cytomegalovirus disease is often confused with mononucleosis, what not to do.
If the child has some symptoms which we will discuss later, so his body is actively fighting the virus provocateur.
So don’t try to stop the symptoms by all available means, as this will interfere with the child’s body to develop immunity naturally. Cytomegalovirus infection in babies requires treatment in exceptional cases, only if complicated.
Who is most often infects children with cytomegalovirus?
Most often, the infection occurs from the mother in different ways:
- in the course of delivery;
- by kissing;
- during breast feeding;
- in close contact with the child.
If the baby is infected in utero or in the first days of life, called neonatal infection – congenital. As you know, any-other neonatal herpes can severely hurt the baby and cause deviations in physical and mental development. What can you say about CMV?
The process of development and symptoms of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in children
After neonatal infection, the symptoms of the above infection only occurs in 15% of infants. This treatment requires only 5% ill.
The rest of the virus develops in the body without symptoms and requires no treatment.
Treatment can be given only in the event the child progressivemarine such as:
- rashes on the skin in the form of the classic herpes rash or petechiae (petechiae numerous red spots scattered over the body);
- bleeding from the navel;
- blood in the feces;
- icteric changes occurring without fever.
If your baby in the first days or months of life appeared the above symptoms, it is necessary to show the pediatrician. The specialist will prescribe special tests and treatment, if required.
You probably already understand that tsitomegalovirusnoy children’s infection becomes dangerous in very rare cases. So can be and to treat it is not worth it, even if the treatment assigned?
In fact, if the therapy was prescribed, so it is really necessary, as a complicated disease triggered by the above virus, can trigger various negative consequences.
The consequences of complicated infections: what they may be?
Most children who are faced with the above symptoms, infectious outbreaks take place without negative consequences. However, some complications happen and the reason for this are the following factors:
- too weak immune system of the newborn and lack of immunity to cytomegalovirus in the mother (antibodies that are produced by the immune system after a virus attack, are transferred through breast milk from mother to child, and if this occurs then the child throughout the period of breast feeding will be protected from cytomegalovirus);
- congenital or acquired immunodeficiency (immune deficiency may develop in children with congenital HIV infection and other complex pathologies and acquired – after a serious different types of diseases and similar circumstances).
Babies and older children with extremely weakened immune system is herpes cytomegalovirus may trigger the following complications:
Special pneumonia is the most common complication requiring special treatment. Statistics says that pneumonia is the most frequent cause of death in people with immunodeficiency.
Chorioretinopathy – eyesight problems, because of which the child is unable to focus sight on anything. This complication often causes strabismus, and sometimes provokes even total blindness.
Failures in the work of the CNS – they are often associated with encephalitic symptoms. The child very sleepy and frequent seizures.
In addition, ill has problems with hearing and even can lose.
To avoid complications, a child with symptoms of illness are required to appoint diagnostics that can confirm or refute the presence of virus-cytomegalovirus in the body. Want to know how is this diagnosis?
How the child is tested for the presence of cytomegalovirus in the body?
Modern diagnostic procedures have high accuracy and are virtually painless. If appointed the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus, it does not mean that you or baby have an increased risk of complications.
Just doctor need to know whether the patient has the virus in the body to be ready to different variants of the disease.
To date, for detection of cytomegalovirus in people of different ages used the following diagnostic methods:
- culture analysis – allows you to grow a colony of viruses in a particular environment, then they can easily recognize;
- PCR enables to detect viral DNA in the children’s body even in the latent stage of infection;
- ELISA using this method searches for antibodies in the blood that are produced after introduction of the viral infection to protect the body from her.
If antibodies to the virus-cytomegalovirus detected in the newborn in the first days of life, then it is safe to say that the infection had congenital and he received it inside the mother’s womb. If antibodies show up later, and their titles will increase, the child was infected after birth.
Do I have to do the tests? Necessarily as other methods of diagnosis will be useless.
This infection cannot be determined visually or in the course of medical examination. It can only be suspected if symptoms appear.
Many people live with the cytomegalovirus in the body for years, unaware of his presence. If you want to know whether you have this pathogen erisipela, then do the tests on their own in any laboratory.
An ELISA for cytomegalovirus is recommended to take the women planning a child, but not necessarily. And it would be better if you will find antibodies to the virus, as this means that you will give your baby a natural immunity and protect it from complications.
The treatment of pediatric infection triggered by cytomegalovirus
As mentioned at the beginning of this article, treatment not all and not always, but only at the onset of symptoms if they progress and can turn into complications. Are you curious about how to treat this infection?
For antiviral therapy, children are prescribed the same drugs as adults, but in different dosages and different scheme.
First and foremost are effective and safe immunomodulators designed to strengthen the immune system and enhance its protective functions. Such drugs include:
Why these medications? They are low toxic and have a minimal list of contraindications. Doses are selected individually, taking into account weight and health are suffering.
Usually the youngest children are assigned Cytotect. This solution is available in vials intended for intravenous administration.
Before the introduction of its heated to a certain temperature, namely up to 22 degrees, and then administered at a dose of 50 u per kilogram of patient weight.
Due to the minimal toxicity Cytotect used even for the treatment of newborn premature babies.
In special cases additionally appointed antiviral drugs, such as:
Antiviral essential only to children with severe immunodeficiency at elevated risk of developing severe complications. Such medicines very negative effect on the kidneys and other important organs, so if possible, try to do without them.
Standard symptoms pediatric cytomegalovirus infection do not require treatment. Symptomatic therapy can be performed only if the symptoms are serious barriers are hazardous and excessively tire the child.
For example, the temperature shot down, unless it exceeds 39 degrees. Rashes on the skin almost does not bother you, but if they are located in places, which are bacteria, for example, butt or legs, then they should be treated with antiseptics, such as Zelenka.
Young parents often ask: «can you protect the child from such viral infection»? It is possible, it should follow preventive guidelines.
Prevention of cytomegalovirus in children: how is it?
First and foremost, parents should understand that carefully protected from various infections, you need only children with immunodeficiency. A child is not a hothouse plant that wilts even the slightest breeze.
It must be in contact with the world and to develop immunity to various bacteria and viruses. Of course, to watch the child and protect him from colds and other illnesses, is, but everything should be in moderation.
I have a friend who does not allow strangers to go near a child, although she and the baby is completely healthy. When they walk, they only suit is not enough for full happiness.
From the outside it looks like a mental disorder. Understand that your child will not be a lifetime to hide, and if it is, it will be socially awkward.
Sooner or later he will begin to communicate with others who have been ill with chicken pox will get intestinal upset from unwashed fruit or vegetable, and will outlast a lot of other diseases.
So don’t be afraid to give the child to have contact with the world. Better if it will get all the time and gradually, including antibodies to various infectious pathogens.
There are situations in which prevention of cytomegalovirus infection really need. For example, if after birth she had the first outbreak of the disease. In this case, Mama needs to take immune stimulant.
To stop breast-feeding do not have, as with the breast milk the child will be transferred to the active substances stimulating the immune system of drugs that will defend him, even in the absence of immunity.
Most importantly, do not self-medicate! The best prevention of any diseases the child is regularly strengthening its immune system. To do this, temper your child, make sure he gets proper nutrition, an active lifestyle and all the necessary conditions for normal development.
That’s all, dear readers! If you want to learn more about CMV, then view thematic videos and check out photos, which shows the standard of the above symptoms of a viral infection.
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Author: Ksenia Borisova (dermatologist)