Cytomegalovirus infection: symptoms, treatment and prevention
Hello, dear friends! Do you know what is a cytomegalovirus infection? Never heard of this disease? Did you know that almost every one of us has it and doesn’t even know it?
If you are sure that your health is normal, then read this article and think again. Maybe you should pass the medical examination.
What is the danger of cytomegalovirus infection and what is it all about?
First things first — find out what it is. This is one of the varieties of erisipela, which is a stunning prevalence.
Every second young person is infected, and by the age of 45 years, the disease affects nearly 100% of the population of our planet.
It is not only those who lead a solitary life and generally not in contact with other people.
The herpes virus infection provokes the fifth type. Penetrating into the body, it attacks specific cells that the virus after the introduction of greatly increase in size. Further course of the disease may be different:
- asymptomatic, that occurs most often;
- mononucleosis (periodic disease aggravated);
- severe, atypical, generalized (affects important systems and organs of the human body).
How can people live with the disease and not know it? The fact that the body in the average person has a strong immune system to fight off different kind of infections on their own.
Viruses-herpes provocateurs under the influence of the immune system to weaken and fall asleep. This man is not confronted with the symptoms and complications, and generally does not feel the presence of viruses. Therefore, the above pathology often goes unnoticed and occurs in most people is hidden.
The immune system cannot completely get rid of the above diseases, but can it put to sleep. Unfortunately, not all have perfect immunity.
For example, pregnant women face a sharp decline in this protective function, as their body tries all sorts of way to preserve the fruit. In addition, the low immunity can be:
- HIV-infected and AIDS patients;
- people after serious operations such as organ transplantation;
- cancer patients.
If you belong to one of these groups, then you know that cytomegalovirus could destroy you. What are the consequences of the media? Very different, but the most common ones are listed below.
He expects carrier girisindeki if he has a weakened immune system?
The most dangerous disease will be for women during pregnancy. If the mother gets infected during 1 and 2 trimester, then most likely it will happen sudden miscarriage.
If the disease transmitted to the child through the placenta, then he will develop serious abnormalities. After this infection in the newborn are: jaundice, diabetes, cerebral palsy, congenital heart defects, malfunctions in the Central nervous system, blindness and deafness.
If the disease occurs in children under 3 years of age, first it may not be apparent, and then when the child grows up, he will show deviations in mental or physical development.
If the infection happens after 5 years, it is likely that the infection will be asymptomatic or standard with periodic mononucleosis complications.
Adults with weakened immune systems and in older people the disease is often atypical and generalized. While it affects the most important organs and systems: liver, kidneys, eyes, pancreas, lungs.
How is the infection transmitted?
Like all types of erisipela, this is transmitted in different ways. For infection required close contact with the patient, which is especially dangerous for the first two years after infection (allocates the maximum amount of virus). Contact might be:
- communication, if suffering from coughs or sneezes (secretes mucus);
- kissing and sex;
- feeding breast milk;
- children’s careless play.
In addition, catching the disease is possible in life if shared personal belongings, namely utensils, hygiene means, towels.
Viruses released into the environment with all human biological fluids: saliva, urine and feces, vaginal lubrication in women, sperm in men, breast milk, sweat, and etc.
Infection in our country often happens during blood transfusion as the cytomegalovirus donor blood is not tested. An additional common means of transmission is vertical — from mother to the baby inside the womb.
Infected by the herpes virus once you get rid of it. At the present time there is no cure against this infection.
After reading you probably really want to know on what grounds to suspect the presence of herpessimplexvirus in the body. If you’re interested, then read carefully the following paragraph of the article.
Symptoms mononucleosis exacerbation
Mononucleose exacerbation is the most common symptom of this infection. It can happen to everyone, even if other complications and signs of him there.
Why hidden herpes escalates? It’s simple: due to the decrease in the protective properties of the immune system. In some cases, our immune system can succumb to viruses?
Many reasons: hypothermia, stress, cold and other colds, overheating, exacerbation of any chronic diseases.
Mononucleosis syndrome occasionally happens in all people-infections of different ages/sex. His signs are subtle and blurred. The main ones are:
- the increase in body temperature to subfebrile values (the temperature is kept between 5 and 10 days);
- swollen lymph nodes, often those located in the neck (the size of the nodes can reach the size of a walnut and even chicken eggs);
- severe pain in the throat, resembling quinsy;
- enlargement of the liver and spleen;
- the dry-type rhinitis (often seen in children).
Atypical development mononucleosis syndrome in addition there is a rash on the skin that resembles herpes, but is throughout the body.
To distinguish the syndrome resulting from herpessimplexvirus disease, colds or influenza can for the duration of SARS is held for 3-5 days, and the symptoms of mono last a few weeks (to months).
What to do if you think you have a cytomegalovirus erisipela?
First of all, calm down because you are not alone. The disease is very common and a lot, so be ashamed and don’t be afraid. To verify the presence of virus in the body, a diagnosis, but rather to pass tests:
- ELISA can detect antibodies of classes M and G to various viruses;
- PCR finds DNA viruses in all human biological fluids;
- culture — virus isolation in cell cultures.
These tests are highly accurate and are popular and IFA included even in the list of mandatory tests for women planning a pregnancy. The results accurately show if you have disease and at what stage of development it is. But if the diagnosis is confirmed, what to do?
Treatment: when and what done?
Since the herpes virus cannot be eliminated from the body completely, and treat it is not necessary, but only if he is not worried. Adults described in the article disease may not be treated even in the case of mononucleosis syndrome.
A strong body must fight the infection, so that later it is not sharpened often.
In some cases, treatment is needed? Assign it can, if the disease is severe or atypical, as well as people with weakened immune systems, e.g. HIV-positive.
Treatment necessarily administered to infants with obvious signs of intrauterine or postnatal infection. Rather than treat this viral disease? All the same protivovirusnye antiviral drugs:
- Foscarnet (the maximum number of positive reviews due to the fact that the drug was created specifically against cytomegalovirus);
- The ganciclovir (also a specialized drug, but less popular);
- Valganciclovir (the modern equivalent of previous medication).
In addition to antiviral therapy, cares is assigned Cytotect (immune modulator) to strengthen the immune system. All of these drugs have a broad list of side effects, so do not attempt self-treatment.
Prevention: can you prevent infection?
To prevent infection is very difficult, but possible if you try. Prevention should be women with negative IgG and IgM (ELISA shows), who are planning a pregnancy, since infection during pregnancy is the most dangerous.
And what about those women who want to become mothers and who have a infection?
Komarovsky recommends to carefully monitor your immune system, strengthen it and protect against factors that can negatively to affect him.
A strong healthy immune system alone will protect the pregnant woman and her child.
So, what should be prevention for those who are not yet infected with CMV? Here are the basic rules that must be followed always, since they reduce the probability of infection several times:
By the way, the cytomegalovirus girisindeki a personal code in ICD 10: «25». Now you know all about this disease.
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Author: Anna Derbeneva (dermatologist)