Epstein-Barr: a detailed description of the rules of treatment
Good day, my beloved readers! Today, I will describe the effect of Epstein-Barr in our body.
Recently, standing in a drugstore, I saw an interesting case: one woman complained to the other that her child was diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis.
She was very frightened, said that in tests have shown some dreadful virus Epstein-Barr and it’s terrible how they will live now, etc.
I approached her and explained what is this virus really is and why she shouldn’t panic. And you know what Epstein-Barr? If you do not know, then I strongly recommend to read the article below in your life there was such panic situations.
What is Epstein-Barr?
This pathogenic microorganism from the family of herpes viruses. It was discovered in 1964 and from that time actively studying. At the moment, the virus is not fully understood, so we know about it, but this information is enough for us.
Its dimensions are 180-200 nm, it consists of a double helix of DNA and the four main antigens:
- early antigen – EA;
- capsid antigen – VCA;
- membrane antigen – MA;
- nuclear antigen EBNA.
The virus has strains A and B. the Fundamental difference between them, so we will not dwell on them. Like all herpes microorganisms, the above after penetration into the human body remains there forever.
The first viral attack occurs with symptoms and often develops into infectious mononucleosis, which so panicked the woman at the pharmacy.
Further, after recovery, the person produces strong immunity, making repeated virus attack threatened it.
Prevalence and risk of infections: should you worry?
Why do you think me so much of a surprise to panic the women? Don’t know? Then I will tell you that you do not panic in such a situation. The fact that Epstein-Barr infected more than 90% of the population of our planet.
Its main method of spread is by airborne droplets, and transmission often occurs through kissing, as the maximum infectious human biological fluid in this case is saliva.
The infection occurs mainly in childhood. Don’t be surprised if your child finds it too as it is inevitable.
For example, my child has immunity to this virus, which means he’s already encountered him.
Fortunately, we have the infection was asymptomatic, so we didn’t see her. But in some cases, the microorganism is herpes Epstein-Barr really becomes a threat and provokes specific complications, which we will discuss later.
At risk: who is most often infected?
More often Epstein-Barr infected babies until one year of age. Surprised? By the way, when dealing with a distressed woman was that her child of 4 years. He also falls into the risk group.
Actually, the above virus may be detected in children at any age. Surely he is your child, you are just not aware of his presence in the body. This is a good thing, because now your child is protected from him for life.
Have herpes due to the foregoing, the pathogen has an interesting feature: when infected children under 3-summer age it occurs in almost all symptoms, but if infection happens later, you are likely to have symptoms.
Most often, infectious mononucleosis and other complications develop in children of school age.
But what about adults? Does an infection from them?
Such cases in my medical practice was not yet, and in the world they are extremely rare. In adults aged 30 years Epstein-Barr develops in the body without symptoms.
As mentioned above, the main disseminator of infection is the saliva of an infected person. When this infected becomes dangerous to others for a lifetime.
Perhaps the woman from the pharmacy yourself accidentally infected their child, when shown affection and love. You could also become the distributor of the infection and infect others, so don’t condemn her. Epstein-Barr is transmitted not only during kissing, but:
- droplet method;
- contact-household way;
- blood transfusion and organ transplantation.
Now you know what it is – a microorganism is herpes Epstein-Barr. By the way, not only the pathogen behaves in an insidious way, but the cytomegalovirus is another herpes family, of which you will read in a separate article.
To avoid infection is almost impossible because the inherent susceptibility of people to infection is almost 100%. Why? The reason is the specific mechanism of action of the virus.
How does the virus in the human body?
Once your child is pociet or coughs the person-the carrier of the virus, which can be you, the child will inhale the virus particles.
In the composition of the particles have a capsid protein with which the virus detects suitable cell and attaches to it.
After docking it transfers its pathogenic DNA in the cell starts to produce viral particles in large quantity. This mechanism of infection is considered the most simple, but despite this, it is most effective.
The maximum appropriate to the virus-provocateur are epithelial cells of mucous membranes and skin. That’s why the susceptibility of people almost 100 percent.
After docking pathogen with mucosal infection will happen necessarily.
In the process of reproduction of the virus activates the protective functions of our immune system. The immune system begins to fight him, which allocates special antibodies.
By the way, that’s how the doctors can determine the presence of virus, rather immune to it in the body.
The immune system of a healthy person easily cope with virus. And if it is weakened, there is a visible symptoms and complications, such as infectious mononucleosis.
After the first outbreak of the infection forever asleep in the body and if the immunity in the future, everything will be fine, it’ll never bother again.
The child of a woman I ran into at the pharmacy, most likely, had a weakened immune system, so the virus in his body got favorable conditions for reproduction and harmful effects. By the way, mono is not the worst thing that could happen.
Complications of infection due to Epstein-Barr: what could be?
The maximum common complication is specific for infectious mononucleosis. Except it was the carrier pigeon Epstein-Barr may be faced with complications such as:
Most severe herpes infection (any) becomes for people with HIV-positive status. If the STD infection data will occur in adulthood, the symptoms of pathology of Epstein-Barr, too, will appear suddenly and spontaneously.
In addition, people with HIV constantly occurring relapses of herpes labialis and genital.
The woman from the pharmacy didn’t know anything about infectious mononucleosis, so I wanted to explain it to her in detail that she was not nervous. If you are interested, you can also find this information.
Infectious mononucleosis due provocateur Epstein-Barr: what is it and how is it identified?
This complication is considered the most frequent and not without reason, as there is in three children out of four is infected.
The disease begins to appear after six to eight weeks after infection. Its main symptoms may be confused with angina, how to treat them:
- fever with muscle aches and throat;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- General malaise and lack of appetite;
- failures of the gastrointestinal tract (in some cases even develop jaundice);
- may appear rash on the body, but not necessarily.
This difference complications from a sore throat is the increase of the internal organs – the liver and spleen. The temperature of the patient rises slightly, but lasts 2-4 weeks (my new friend, the child lay with a temperature of month).
When the child began to suffer symptoms, my new friend asked pediatrician. It is because of the inexperience of prescribed antibiotics, as has mixed infection of Epstein-Barr with streptococcal tonsillitis.
After taking antibiotics the symptoms added rash all over the body. By the way, it’s quite common, serving as a feature of infection of Epstein-Barr.
After repeated requests to the hospital where he was appointed a full diagnosis, namely ELISA analysis, which looks for antibodies IgGи IgM to Epstein-Barr (also to other sorts of viruses).
The results were positive and the diagnosis was changed to «infectious mononucleosis».
We met at the pharmacy once again in that moment, when a woman bought drugs. Want to know what treatment is indicated for complications of the infection, Epstein-Barr?
Antiviral therapy for infectious mononucleosis
This is not a fatal disease! Even without treatment, it will take place automatically at 3-4 weeks, but if you don’t want to deal with complications, then treat your sick child.
Specific therapy against the herpes viruses yet, but there are antiviral drugs that can significantly reduce the activity of the provocateur Epstein-Barr in the body. This way you can reduce the severity of symptoms and the disease will go away faster.
Remember that treatment is only administered by a doctor and only in case if the infection of Epstein-Barr something proved. Do not self-medicate, as you will heal your child so that his immune system just refuses to work!
In the event of mononucleosis and other complications prescribers:
- Acyclovir or Zovirax – children under 2 years: 200 mg up to 6 years – 400 mg, over 6 years – 800 mg four times a day for weeks;
- Viferon rectal suppositories (to strengthen immunity) – the dosage varies by age;
- Cycloferon (an interferon inducer) – the dosage varies and also sostavlyaet150 mg (age 4-7 years), 300 mg (7-14 years), 450 mg (older than 14 years and adults) at once 1, 3, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 day.
- Human immunoglobulin is administered in extreme cases, children from 3 years to 3 ml intramuscularly (in the ass) and adults 4.5 ml four to five times every 48 hours.
If you have suffered a mild form of the infection, strengthen your immune system natural remedies: Echinacea, Siberian ginseng, rosewort. If mono is not longer than a month, then therapy with Cycloferon is administered again.
You can ease the condition suffering from the following actions (which I, of course, advised his new friend):
- arrange on bed rest for the whole period of the disease;
- thoroughly ventilate the room in which the patient;
- let the patient drink plenty of liquids, preferably fortified;
- if there is rhinitis, use narrow vessels nasal drops, for example, Sanorin or Sofradeks;
- be sure to rinse a throat antiseptic solutions, for example, Furatsilina;
- as antipyretics, the patient can be given Paracetamol, Nurofen, Brufen;
- to remove puffiness will help antihistamine medicines, including claritin or Diazolin.
If your child has found the Epstein-Barr early childhood, do not worry, this is a good thing, because in the future he will develop strong immunity and, therefore, infection never disturbed.
Most importantly, be sure to show the child the pediatrician and treated if the treatment you need.
I hope I answered all the questions. I was very pleased to see that the woman from the pharmacy, after our conversation I went home with peace of mind. Now she knew what to do, and so do you.
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The author: Elena Smirnova (dermatologist)