Disease of the middle ear: symptoms, causes and prevention
What are the diseases of the middle ear?
The ear human body has a unique structure. Despite its apparent simplicity, the ears have many complex elements, dysfunction of which causes loss of hearing acuity, a feeling of stuffiness, noise and other extraneous sounds. In severe cases, there is dizziness, nausea and vomiting, education of hearing loss and occurrence of chronic pain.
Most often the person becomes inflamed the middle region of the ear. This is due to the anatomical structure and a weak immune system. It is therefore particularly important causes of inflammation. Remember that ear infections can occur due to frequent touching of the ears with dirty hands, injury of the ear in the process of children’s games or many other signs but symptoms, causes and prevention of diseases of the middle ear in each case.
About the structure of the middle ear
The human ear is divided into three parts, the middle division of which is subjected to inflammation more often. In the device of the middle ear includes the tympanic region, the auditory ossicles, mastoid process, and the membrane is located in the eardrum.
Each piece in the middle ear has the function of converting sound waves into nerve impulses. First, sounds and noises to penetrate into the outer ear and are transmitted through the auditory passage to the area of the eardrum. Further, the sounds are sent to the auditory ossicles. The converted sound is processed by the anvil, stirrup and hammer is transmitted to the inner ear and then to the brain.
It is clear that the design of this region has a unique structure and dysfunction of any part can occur in resonance with all the human ear. Thus, the patient loses the hearing, and in some cases the ability to speak.
The middle part of the ear occupies a large part of the ear structure. It starts right behind the eardrum and ends in the temporal part of the skull, firmly adhering to the inner ear.
Components of the middle part of the ear on:
- Eustachian tube.
Eustachian tube is a connection of the nose, throat and ears. An important function of this part of the control and processing of inhaled air.
Most often in case of inflammation of this tube is disease on the ear, as infection and bacteria almost without difficulty penetrate into the region of the middle ear, and then infecting the entire body.
In addition to the described parts an important function in the ear are the auditory ossicles. They are adjacent to the drum area and have the function of processing and transformation of sounds of different heights.
In addition, this region of the structure is responsible for the maintenance of the tympanic membrane, protecting the membrane from too high sounds increase too quiet waves as well as the adaptation of the organ of hearing for the perception of sounds.
In the process of penetration of viruses and infections in this region, a person experiences severe pain, the nature of which in each case is individual. So, they can be dull, sharp, shooting, long or single.
Regardless of the degree of pain and their localization at the first symptoms of the inflammation you must consult ENT doctor for diagnosing inflammation. The sooner you contact the hospital, the easier it will be therapy recovery!
Self-treatment at this stage is unacceptable, as you must determine not only the cause and symptoms of inflammation, but also to ensure the integrity of the eardrum.
Use alcohol tinctures, solutions and different ear drops at this stage is unacceptable.
Middle ear disease are divided into certain categories. So, the most common form of the disease is considered infectious ear infection. It is known that common cold or hypothermia can cause serious complications, until the development of hearing loss.
Most often this type of inflammation of the ear affects children of about three years. This is because babies are not fully formed immune system.
Notice the formation of this inflammation is quite simple. Among the main signs of marked redness of the ear and auditory canal, severe pain, formation of lumps and growths, mucous or purulent discharge.
In addition, there has been a General malaise, severe fatigue, feeling of itching and burning. It is important to pay attention to the condition of the lymph nodes. Commonly they increase in volume and give pain on the neck and face.
The cause of erysipelas lies in the complications of colds, which include not only the common cold or flu, but sore throat, periodontitis, and inflammation of the teeth.
Treatment treatment includes antibiotics, flushing the ear, physiotherapy.
This inflammation is characterized by severe damage to the skin, crust formation, and the emergence of itching and burning.
The reason for the formation of eczema lies in allergic dermatitis, diabetes, tuberculosis, and because of the want of the organ of hearing.
At this time, it is important to establish the cause of the inflammation and a course of treatment. So, in the case of allergic inflammation is necessary to drink a course of antihistamine medications, and in the case of infection an antibiotic is prescribed.
In the treatment process can begin mucus discharge from the ear canal. At this time, it is important to use a drying ointment.
Often the middle ear inflammation marks the disease perichondritis. It may be primary or secondary, but in both cases it is necessary to provide emergency medical care, as manifested by severe pain, swelling and changes in the structure of the ear organ.
Treatment can be medication. In some cases the patient may need surgical intervention.
In the case of severe temperature are appointed antipyretics. Later in the course of treatment includes antibiotic therapy, elimination of purulent secretions, vitamin complexes.
Acute catarrh of the middle ear
During inflammation of the ear, often there is acute disease, which is implied in the form of purulent inflammation of the middle part. The reason lies in the disease of the nasopharynx, and the mucosa of the auditory tube or the tympanic membrane.
Acute catarrh of the middle part of the ear appears from behind goes untreated diseases of the upper respiratory tract, which are accompanied by a mucous discharge from the nose.
Notice the main symptom of inflammation – strong congestion of one or both ears. In addition, the person experiences the resonance of the voice, severe hearing loss, pain in the middle ear. In special cases, there is the feeling of the transfusion liquid in the ear when tilting the head forward or when turning.
The cause of acute Qatar lies in the penetration into the organism of staphylococci, streptococci or pneumococci.
In the course of treatment includes medications that relieve swelling, and also instill vasoconstrictor nose drops. In addition, the therapy to cure is physiotherapy, which includes UHF and electrophoresis.
After implementing these procedures, the patient is prescribed the blowing of the ears. It is necessary to normalize the internal pressure and eliminate pain. This is followed by a restoration of function of the auditory tube and massage of the eardrum.
In some cases, at this stage of treatment found polyps of the nose, increase in the gland or the formation of adenoids. In the process of therapy, these elements are removed.
In some cases, medication is ineffective. In this case, the patient is assigned to the operation. The surgical process is myringotomy or tympanotomy.
Among the prevention of acute Qatar of middle region are marked in timely treatment of catarrhal inflammations, as well as to avoid overcooling and draughts.
Acute inflammation of the middle ear
Acute otitis media is the commonest disease that occurs in humans. This inflammation is meant a General inflammation of the middle ear disease tympanic membrane, auditory tube and mastoid.
At this time, the patient experiences severe pain in the ears, fever to 39 degrees, weakness and fatigue, loss of appetite and loss of sleep. Often ear pain is transmitted in the temporal part. The patient complains of the presence of extraneous sounds.
In the treatment of acute disease include antibiotic therapy, a course of antihistamines, relieve swelling, painkillers, antipyretics medicines, which include vitamins, minerals and lots of calcium.
In the case of acute illness, can not do without ear drops containing antibiotics»Kandibiotik», «Otofa», «Sofradeks» and others. Throughout the course of treatment, you must consult with your doctor.
At the last stage the patient is assigned physiotherapy.
To prevent this inflammation, you must pass examinations at the ENT, but also to strengthen the body, exercise and take plenty of vitamins.
Allergic otitis media
In the case of allergic otitis media patients complain of mucous and pus, and frequent ear congestion.
The feeling of itching and burning worse at night, causing the patient severe pain.
The symptoms of the disease of the middle ear in case of otitis media include pain, which becomes unbearable and shooting.
In the course of treatment includes addressing the underlying causes of inflammation. If allergic otitis media is a complex of other ear diseases, then the patient is assigned the antibiotic «Amoxicillin», «Amoxiclav».
In the case of individual intolerance of the components included in the drugs the patient assigned more gentle medication «Doxycycline», «Sumamed» or «Rapamycin». In the case of purulent secretions the patient prescribed intramuscular medication.
Further, the patient may need the use of antiallergic agents. Among them are noted such as tablets, and ointments.
In some cases it is impossible to determine the root cause of inflammation, so the doctor prescribes immunotherapy.
Another common disease of the middle ear, mastoiditis.
It is characterized by disease of the mastoid in connection with the penetration of viruses and bacteria in the middle part of the ear.
The patient body temperature rises, there is a feeling of stuffiness ear, greatly reduced the sharpness of the sounds.
It is important to provide timely treatment, which includes drug therapy. In more severe situations, the patient is assigned a surgical procedure that restored the affected cells, the ear is cleansed of pus and mucus, and also there is therapy to eliminate viruses with antibiotics.
In the process of treatment of each inflammation it is important to consult a qualified physician. Avoid self-medication as this can lead to serious consequences.