Diseases of the ear of man: what are ear disease, symptoms and treatment

What are the diseases of the ear man?

The auditory system is a complex unit that is responsible for two functions – the capture of sounds and the retention of balance. The on-ear, unique in construction. It consists of three parts – outer, middle and inner ear. In turn, each of these departments has its own structure.

All the body susceptible to various diseases, the ears are no exception. The disease can occur in people of all ages, not once in any of the departments mentioned above. And trigger pathology of the organ of hearing, each person may be different. To protect hearing from ailments you need to keep clean, do preventive massage to avoid hypothermia and mechanical impact.

Types of diseases

Ear disease in humans are divided into the following types:

  1. Innate – walking on heredity or are part of a complex syndrome of failure development. Typically, anomalies are associated with anatomical or physiological malformations of the outer, middle or inner ear. To restore hearing will succeed only at the expense of the operation or installation of the prosthesis. Read more about how a hearing aid works, read here.
  2. Traumatic disease — are due to external influences. This involves rupture of the eardrum due to loud sound exposure or careless cleaning of the ear from sulfur.
  3. Infectious diseases are the consequence of viral and infectious pathologies.

Diseases of the ear of the person may be infectious or non-infectious origin, can occur due to other illnesses or to develop independently. In all cases, time has not clogged the alarm may result in the development of dangerous complications, a complete loss of hearing and mobility impairments of the entire body.

Before find out which diseases of the ear are, consider the common symptoms of disease manifestations.

Signs of ear disease

The number of diseases that attack the ear a lot, so at the first symptoms should consult a doctor. Most of the diseases of hearing organs have similar clinical picture, with the following symptoms:

  • the appearance of discharge from the ears;
  • malaise and various nature headaches;
  • weakness, lethargy;
  • noise in the ears;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • redness, swelling, itching;
  • congestion;
  • a slight fever;
  • loss of balance, orientation;
  • decrease or loss of hearing;
  • tingling pain that radiates to the side of the eye, the lower jaw or the temple.

As in ENT practice, diseases of the ear of a man is not the last place, and the list of pathologies is quite wide, so consider symptoms, as well as to make a picture of the disease should the doctor.

Types of diseases of the ear

All these symptoms are considered to be a clear sign of a failure in the auditory system and indicates the presence of one of the diseases described below.

Deaf-mutism

The disease can be congenital or acquired (up to 3 years). In the first case, it arises in the womb, through the fetal exposure to harmful factors and viral infections.

Acquired disease is as a complication of other diseases or the result of the effects of certain drugs on the body. Symptoms: lack of hearing and speech disorders.

Treatment of an illness is ineffective, but also have a social rehabilitation centers, where using certain techniques teaching verbal speech.

Sinusitis

The disease affects the ear, but is not a disease. Sinusitis – infectious inflammatory lesions of the nasal cavities. Symptoms: inflammation of the nasal mucosa, sensation of pressure and pain in the head, noise, laying in my ears.

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Treatment. If the virus progresses, the doctor prescribed antibiotics and nose drops. When the disease appeared as a result of allergies, then apply At or loratadine, Rhinopront. Along the way, washed sinus preparations Dioxidine, Miramistin, Furacillin.

For pain ear pain using non-steroidal drugs based on ibuprofen.

Evstahiit

Pathology is characterized by lesions of the auditory tube, resulting in reduced ventilation of the tympanic cavity with the development of catarrhal otitis media. Starts a painful process after infection.

Symptoms: auditory perception decreases, there is pain in the ear, the sense that it has water. During head movements, the pain increases. The appearance of the temperature tells about the beginning of the development of purulent otitis media.

Treatment of diseases of the ear such that the integrated. Prescribe antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medication. Apply vasoconstrictor nasal drops, antihistamines.

Mastoiditis

Is an inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone infectious origin. In the Appendix there is purulent process, caused by pathogenic microbes. Symptoms: there is a change in the blood is body temperature, is intoxication, hearing loss.

In addition, in the ear throbbing pain occurs, the shell bulged, appears swelling, redness, suppuration. Treatment can occur with medication or with surgery.

Disease Miniera

Has a negative impact on the inner ear produces contraction of vascular lesions of the ear labyrinth. Violates the circulation, leading to the accumulation of fluid in it.

Symptoms: appears, occasionally accompanied by noise, congestion, dizziness, nausea. It becomes difficult to keep the balance, there is irritability to loud noises.

Treatment. This ear disease in humans, are incurable, to ease disease use antihistamine, sedative, diuretic medications at the discretion of the physician. In this case should be a mustard bath, sit on a salt-free diet, to lead a regular lifestyle and to avoid the sun.

Neuritis of the auditory nerve

Inflammation predverno-cochlear nerve is considered to be neurological diseases. The disease occurs due to age-related changes, inflammatory processes, injuries. Symptoms of facial palsy — a weakening of perception, the appearance of spots before the eyes, dull headaches, noise, dizziness.

Treatment. After the diagnosis, the doctor directs the survey, and then according to the results, determines drug therapy. Prescribed medicines to expand blood vessels and enhance blood supply to the auditory nerve.

And if you start to act at first, you can avoid hearing loss. During strong intoxication of the auditory nerve, prescribe drugs to eliminate the toxins. In secondary infection prescribe biogenic stimulants and vitamins, which are aimed at preventing of destruction of the auditory nerve.

Today with many diseases inflammatory medicine is fighting the influence of laser, ultrasound, endoscopic intervention. Sometimes I use radiowave surgery. These techniques are able to restore hearing even to those people who have completely lost.

Otitis

Otitis the most common disease of the ear treatment choose from which part of the auditory organ is inflammation. Parts outer, middle, inner ear infection. So, the first type of the disease appears in the form of an abscess in the external auditory canal.

Symptoms. While touching the hearing body there is pain, discomfort is noticeable when the mouth is open, there is itching and pus.

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Treatment. Is ear cleaning solutions furatsilina or boric acid, are taking antibiotics, undergoing physiotherapy, applied a hot compress.

The second type of disease occurs due to pathogenic microorganisms. Stimuli when injected into the middle ear, were pressing on the Eustachian tube.

Symptoms by stage of disease.

  1. At the first observed hearing loss, intense pain, shot in the head, fever.
  2. When the second stage begins suppuration, and the pain and the temperature go away.
  3. Third, discharge stop, a perception of hearing is markedly reduced.

Treatment. Use painkillers, antibiotics, vasoconstrictors. If medication does not help carry out the withdrawal of pus.

Labyrinthitis is an inner ear infection called due to the fact that the process of inflammation affects the inner ear. The symptoms are dizziness, noise, loss of balance, nausea and vomiting. Changing the color of the skin, there are unpleasant sensations in the heart.

Treatment is with antibiotics and vestibulotomy.

Fungus in the ears or atomikos

Atomikos is an active alien flora on the membrane and the walls of the passage. Provocateurs such a disorder are molds and yeast-like fungi, their appearance begins after the violation of natural microflora the auditory organ.

Symptoms. In the initial stages are itching and congestion, and formed a crust tube, then the ear is swollen, you start to get discharge, the skin is dry. A favorable environment for infection creates the disease, such as immunosuppression, AIDS, oncological diseases and diabetes.

The more slime comes out, the more flows a fungal infection and attempts to remove it with cotton buds, leading to more pushing bacteria deeper into the ear.

Treatment of the disease difficult. After the diagnosis the doctor prescribes method of eliminating bacteria. With medical treatment, was discharged packs, anesthetics, antibiotics and drops.

Otosclerosis

Focal lesion of bone capsule of the labyrinth. The disease is transmitted by inheritance in the female. Symptoms: dizzy, pain and congestion in ears, hearing loss. The effects of the disease begins gradually with one ear, but over time the hearing loss appears on the other.

Treatment of the disease carried out conservatively and surgically. In the first case the treatment does not bring proper results, only contributes to noise reduction. Comprehensive treatment includes the introduction of enzymes, massage of the tympanic membrane, the inflation of the auditory pathways.

If the rumor is decreased by 30-35 dB, and the doctor prescribes surgery with the prosthesis, after which the hearing improves. Apply: Chymotrypsin; Lidase; Hydrocortisone.

Otogenny sepsis

The disease starts when the action of the middle ear, the infection spreads to the veins and sinuses of the temporal bone. More common at a young age. The symptoms of sepsis manifest themselves as shortness of breath, weakness, loss of appetite, tachycardia, chills, fever.

Treatment is with drainage, placed in the focal area, to display the infected masses. Simultaneously prescribe antibiotics and anti-fungal emulsion.

Cerumen

When sulfur becomes too much, there is a blockage of the ear canal. Initially, the seal is soft, but hardens over time. Symptoms: feeling of stuffiness, autotomy, the man began to hear. If the tube touches the walls of the passage, there appears the cough and dizziness.

The accumulation of sulfur detected using otoscopy and if water in the ear. Then the tube swells and blocks out all the light, and hearing is reduced.

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Treatment. Remove the accumulation of sulfur by washing using a syringe Janet, warm water. Sometimes to soften for two days drip 37 With a sodium bicarbonate solution for 10-15 minutes, after moving to leaching.

Hearing loss

Hearing loss is called a slow deterioration of sound perception. The disease may be the consequence of another disease or occur on the background of vascular disorders. Symptom is constant promiscuity the speech of others.

Treatment of hearing loss depends on the stage and cause of the disease. To effect, first neutralize the disease that caused the inflammatory process. Is restorative therapy (injections of aloe, phibbs, vitamins B1 and etc.) and are assigned the means, improves blood circulation. Learn how to restore hearing in hearing loss here.

Ear trauma

The most common mechanical damage. The nature of the damage depends on the intensity and severity of the injury, as it can go impact on all three divisions of the ear. Symptoms. When the damage occurred and has been touched by the ear, nausea, dizzy.

Treatment. If it hit the outer ear, you should treat him disarming the liquid miramistina or hlorgeksidinom. Allowed the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ointments.

Also for minor cuts shell, lubricate the wound with iodine and apply antiseptic dressing. In case of serious injuries, bleeding must be put into the ear canal with a piece of cotton wool and apply a sterile dressing. To clean and wash the hearing on impossible.

Barotrauma

The impact on the middle ear is the consequence of the pressure drop. Symptom of barotrauma appears mainly in those who work in the places of explosions, the height of the caissons. Symptoms. If it happens the differential pressure a person feels «shock» in your ear, and then pain. There is a dizziness, noise and ringing in the organ of hearing. When ruptured eardrum, bleeding.

Treatment. If there is not a strong effect, and the membrane is preserved, in the passage placed sterile cotton wad. If the damage to the ear, in the ear gently blown antibiotic or sulfa powder and a bandage. When there was a strong impact, conduct remodeling or operation is selected prosthesis.

The results

Considered common diseases of the ear it can be concluded that refers to symptoms that need special attention in order to eliminate the risk of infectious pathologies, which have a devastating effect on the organ of hearing and the body in General.

Do not forget about prevention, which consists in the careful observance of hygiene of the ear, proper and timely treatment of diseases of other organs, the fight against chronic infections, hypertrophy of turbinates, and in the hardening of the body.