Dysgerminoma of the ovary: causes, diagnosis and treatment
A disease such as dysgerminoma is a malignant tumor originating from primary cells of the gonads. Mostly diagnosed in young women who have a little underdeveloped sex organs, or there is a delay in the development of the body. When the disease has just started to develop, it is accompanied by constant pain, General weakness of the body and shortness of urination.
If the disease is neglected, then there is the growth of the next organs, infection and a General poisoning of the body. For diagnosis consider complaints of the patient, study the survey results. Treated with surgery, followed by radiotherapy.
The causes of disease
As already mentioned, the disease appears of primary cells of the gonads. At birth, all normal cells will form the follicles. If the process is disrupted, then the cells do not change, and eventually turn into cancerous tumors.
Dysgerminoma looks like an oval or round lesion in the small bumps. Early in the disease education is smooth, and in the later stages capsule tear metastases, which affect adjacent organs. Basically, the defeat of the ovary occurs only on one side. The size of the tumor may be different. With the proliferation of a metastasis they can grow a uterus, fallopian tube, lymph nodes of the abdominal aorta. Late-term possible growth of metastases in lungs, liver and even bones.
The signs of the disease can be common symptoms. In the beginning you may feel pain, dull aching or pulling. Two patients out of ten it can be acute. In addition, dysgerminoma may be the cause of difficult urination, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and the menstrual cycle. The patient may experience General weakness of the body. If the disease is neglected, it may be a poisoning of the body due to the decomposition of the tumor.
At the General examination the patient may experience developmental delays and in rare cases begin to show secondary male characteristics. Basically, it is the emergence of hair on the face, roughness of the voice and increased muscle mass. In some cases, female sexual organs can mutate and become similar to the male penis.
During probing of the abdomen you can feel the tumor, and gynecological examination is a solid tumor, varying in size from three to ten or more centimeters. At the beginning of its appearance, the tumor may be movable. In the development process, the mobility decreases. If it has spread throughout the pelvic area, it is possible to probe multiple sites.
Diagnosis of the disease
Dysgerminoma in one ovary is diagnosed based on patient complaints, visual examination, and examination results. When the patient is poorly developed organism, are of secondary male characteristics detectable and dense hilly tumor, that is, all the signs of the disease ― dysgerminoma. The patient is given a referral for a pelvic ultrasound. The results of ultrasound and determine the nature, form tumors, and the presence of multiple lesions.
The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of the resected tumor.
Compare this lesion with other does not make much sense, because all the resulting tumours of the ovary should be removed only surgically.
The treatment of the disease
The treatment of such diseases is carried out only by surgery. What kind of area should be deleted when the operation is determined only by individually. It depends on how widespread the tumor, the age at which the patient and if she wants in the future to have children.
If a woman of childbearing age and subsequently planning a pregnancy, carried out the unilateral removal of the ovary and fallopian tube.
Women who have menopause or those who no longer wishes to become pregnant, surgery is performed to remove the entire reproductive system.
If the tumor invaded both ovaries, is the complete removal of the reproductive systems followed by radiotherapy. This disease is highly sensitive to irradiation. It helps after surgery, when re-emergence of the disease and metastases. During disseminated changes used in chemotherapy.
The prognosis for patients after surgery is quite favorable. Almost nine out of ten patients observed five-year survival. Those who have had a unilateral tumor. Also known favorable cases when pregnancy and childbirth.
Unfortunately, the negative is the tumor that has hit both sides, has spread beyond the ovaries and has metastasized. In this case, the opinions of many specialists on the survival of patients differ.
Half argues that if we apply the combined treatment, the five-year survival rate is over eighty percent. The second half says that the malignancy of the tumor is variable. Therefore, to predict should be very carefully. In particular, this applies to tumors in adolescent girls.